As filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on December 11, 2020.
Registration Statement No. 333 -

     


UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
     

FORM F-3
REGISTRATION STATEMENT
UNDER
THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933
     


SCORPIO BULKERS INC.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

The Republic of the Marshall Islands
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
 
 
N/A
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)
 
Scorpio Bulkers Inc.
9, Boulevard Charles III
MC 98000 Monaco
377 9798 5715
(Address and telephone number of Registrant's principal executive offices)
 
Seward & Kissel LLP
Attention: Lawrence Rutkowski, Esq.
Edward S. Horton, Esq.
One Battery Park Plaza
New York, New York 10004
(212) 574-1200
(Name, address and telephone number of agent for service)

Copies to:
 
Lawrence Rutkowski, Esq.
Edward S. Horton, Esq.
Seward & Kissel LLP
One Battery Park Plaza
New York, New York 10004
(212) 574-1200 (telephone number)
(212) 480-8421 (facsimile number)
   
     

Approximate date of commencement of proposed sale to the public:  From time to time after this registration statement becomes effective as determined by market conditions and other factors.

If the only securities being registered on this Form are being offered pursuant to dividend or interest reinvestment plans, please check the following box.   ☐

If any of the securities being registered on this Form are to be offered on a delayed or continuous basis pursuant to Rule 415 under the Securities Act of 1933, check the following box.   ☒

If this Form is filed to register additional securities for an offering pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act, please check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.  ☐

If this Form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(c) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.

If this Form is a registration statement pursuant to General Instruction I.C. or a post-effective amendment thereto that shall become effective upon filing with the Commission pursuant to Rule 462(e) under the Securities Act, check the following box.  ☐

If this Form is a post-effective amendment to a registration statement filed pursuant to General Instruction I.C. filed to register additional securities or additional classes of securities pursuant to Rule 413(b) under the Securities Act, check the following box.  ☐

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is an emerging growth company as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act of 1933.  ☐

If an emerging growth company that prepares its financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards† provided pursuant to Section 7(a)(2)(B) of the Securities Act.  ☐

† The term "new or revised financial accounting standard" refers to any update issued by the Financial Accounting Standards Board to its Accounting Standards Codification after April 5, 2012.


CALCULATION OF REGISTRATION FEE


Title of Each Class of
Securities to be Registered
Amount to
be Registered
Proposed Maximum
Aggregate
Offering Price
Amount of
Registration Fee
Primary Offering
 
 
 
Common Shares, par value $0.01 per share          
 
 
 
Preferred Shares, par value $0.01 per share          
 
 
 
Debt Securities(4)          
 
 
 
Warrants(5)          
 
 
 
Rights(6)          
 
 
 
Purchase Contracts(7)          
 
 
 
Units(8)          
 
 
 
Primary Offering Total
 
$500,000,000(1)(2)
$54,550 (3)
Secondary Offering
 
 
 
Common Shares, par value $0.01 per share, to be offered by the Selling Shareholders          
3,107,751(9)
$50,128,024(10)
$5,469(10)
Total          
 
$550,128,024
$60,019


(1)
Such amount in U.S. dollars or the equivalent thereof in foreign currencies as shall result in an aggregate public offering price for all securities of $500,000,000. Also includes such indeterminate amount of securities of the types listed above that are convertible or exchangeable into one or more of the securities listed above. Separate consideration may or may not be received for securities that are issuable upon conversion of, or in exchange for, convertible or exchangeable securities.

(2)
Estimated solely for the purpose of calculating the registration fee pursuant to Rule 457(o) under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended. Pursuant to General Instruction II.C of Form F-3, the table does not specify by each class information as to the proposed maximum aggregate offering price. Any securities registered hereunder may be sold separately or as units with other securities registered hereunder. In no event will the aggregate offering price of all securities sold by Scorpio Bulkers Inc. pursuant to this registration statement exceed $500,000,000.

(3)
Calculated in accordance with Rule 457(o) under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended.

(4)
If any debt securities are issued at an original issue discount, then the offering may be in such greater principal amount as shall result in a maximum aggregate offering price not to exceed $500,000,000.

(5)
There is being registered hereunder an indeterminate number of warrants as may from time to time be sold at indeterminate prices not to exceed an aggregate offering price of $500,000,000.

(6)
There is being registered hereunder an indeterminate number of rights as may from time to time be sold at indeterminate prices not to exceed an aggregate offering price of $500,000,000.

(7)
There is being registered hereunder an indeterminate number of purchase contracts as may from time to time be sold at indeterminate prices not to exceed an aggregate offering price of $500,000,000.

(8)
There is being registered hereunder an indeterminate number of units as may from time to time be sold at indeterminate prices not to exceed an aggregate offering price of $500,000,000. Units may consist of any combination of the securities offered by Scorpio Bulkers Inc. registered hereunder.

(9)
Pursuant to Rule 416 under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, the common shares being registered hereunder include such indeterminate amount of shares as may be issuable as a result of stock splits, stock dividends or similar transactions.

(10)
Estimated solely for the purpose of calculating the registration fee pursuant to Rule 457(c) under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, based on the average of the high and low prices per share of the registrant's common shares as reported on the New York Stock Exchange on December 7, 2020.
 
The Registrant hereby amends this Registration Statement on such date or dates as may be necessary to delay its effective date until the Registrant shall file a further amendment which specifically states that this Registration Statement shall thereafter become effective in accordance with Section 8(a) of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or until the Registration Statement shall become effective on such date as the Securities and Exchange Commission, acting pursuant to said Section 8(a), may determine.



The information in this prospectus is not complete and may be changed. This prospectus is not an offer to sell these securities and it is not soliciting an offer to buy or sell these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted. These securities may not be sold until the registration statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission is effective.

PROSPECTUS

Subject to completion, dated December 11, 2020
$500,000,000
Common Shares, Preferred Shares, Debt Securities,
Warrants, Rights, Purchase Contracts, and Units
and
3,107,751 of our Common Shares
Offered by the Selling Shareholders


SCORPIO BULKERS INC.

Through this prospectus, we may periodically offer:
(1) our common shares,
(2) our preferred shares,
(3) our debt securities,
(4) our warrants,
(5) our rights,
(6) our purchase contracts, and
(7) our units.
We may also offer securities of the types listed above that are convertible or exchangeable into one or more of the securities listed above. The aggregate offering price of all securities issued and sold by us under this prospectus may not exceed $500,000,000.
In addition, the Selling Shareholders named in this prospectus or their respective donees, pledgees, transferees, designees, distributees, or other successors in interest may sell, in one or more offerings pursuant to this prospectus, up to an aggregate of 3,107,751 of our common shares that were previously acquired as further described herein. The Selling Shareholders or their respective donees, pledgees, transferees, designees, distributees or other successors in interest may, from time to time, sell, transfer or otherwise dispose of any or all of these common shares, including on any stock exchange, market or trading facility on which the shares are traded or in privately negotiated transactions at fixed prices that may be changed, at market prices prevailing at the time of sale or at negotiated prices. Information on the Selling Shareholders and the times and manners in which they may offer and sell our common shares are described under the sections entitled "Selling Shareholders" and "Plan of Distribution" in this prospectus. While we will bear all costs, expenses and fees in connection with the registration of the common shares, we will not receive any of the proceeds from the sale of our common shares by the Selling Shareholders.
Our common shares are listed on the New York Stock Exchange, or NYSE, under the symbol "SALT."
The securities to be sold under this prospectus may be offered directly or through underwriters, agents or dealers. The names of any underwriters, agents or dealers will be included in a supplement to this prospectus.
An investment in these securities involves a high degree of risk. Before you make an investment in our securities, you should carefully consider the section entitled "Risk Factors" on page 8 of this prospectus, and other risk factors contained in any applicable prospectus supplement and in the documents incorporated by reference herein and therein.
Neither the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or determined if this prospectus is truthful or complete. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.
The date of this prospectus is                     , 2020.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS
1
PROSPECTUS SUMMARY
2
RISK FACTORS
8
CAUTIONARY STATEMENT REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
9
USE OF PROCEEDS
11
CAPITALIZATION
12
SERVICE OF PROCESS AND ENFORCEMENT OF CIVIL LIABILITIES
13
PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION
14
SECURITY OWNERSHIP OF CERTAIN BENEFICIAL OWNERS AND MANAGEMENT
16
SELLING SHAREHOLDERS
17
DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK
18
DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES
23
DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS
29
DESCRIPTION OF RIGHTS
30
DESCRIPTION OF PURCHASE CONTRACTS
31
DESCRIPTION OF UNITS
32
TAX CONSIDERATIONS
33
EXPENSES
34
SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA
35
LEGAL MATTERS
35
EXPERTS
35
WHERE YOU CAN FIND ADDITIONAL INFORMATION
36

You should rely only on the information contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus and in any prospectus supplement. Neither we nor the Selling Shareholders have authorized any other person to provide you with different information. If anyone provides you with different or inconsistent information, you should not rely on it. Neither we nor the Selling Shareholders will make any offer to sell these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted. You should assume that the information appearing in this prospectus and the applicable supplement to this prospectus is accurate as of the date on its respective cover, and that any information incorporated by reference is accurate only as of the date of the document incorporated by reference, unless we indicate otherwise. Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed since those dates.


ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS
This prospectus is part of a registration statement that we filed with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, or the Commission, using a shelf registration process. Under the shelf registration process, we may sell the common shares, preferred shares, debt securities, warrants, rights, purchase contracts and units described in this prospectus in one or more offerings up to a total dollar amount of $500,000,000. In addition, the Selling Shareholders may sell in one or more offerings pursuant to this prospectus up to an aggregate of 3,107,751 of our common shares, as described in this prospectus. This prospectus provides you with a general description of the securities we or the Selling Shareholders may offer. We will provide updated information if required whenever we or the Selling Shareholders offer our securities pursuant to this prospectus. This may include a prospectus supplement that will describe the specific amounts, prices and terms of the offered securities. The prospectus supplement may also add, update or change the information contained in this prospectus. If there is any inconsistency between the information in this prospectus and any prospectus supplement, you should rely on the prospectus supplement. Before purchasing any securities, you should read carefully both this prospectus and any prospectus supplement, together with the additional information described below.
This prospectus and any prospectus supplement do not and will not contain all the information provided in the registration statement that we filed with the Commission. Forms of the indenture and other documents establishing the terms of the offered securities are filed as exhibits to the registration statement. Statements in this prospectus or any prospectus supplement about these documents are summaries and each statement is qualified in all respects by reference to the document to which it refers. You should refer to the actual documents for a more complete description of the relevant matters. For further information about us or the securities offered hereby, you should refer to the registration statement, which you can obtain from the Commission as described below under "Where You Can Find Additional Information."
1

PROSPECTUS SUMMARY
This summary highlights information that appears later in this prospectus and is qualified in its entirety by the more detailed information and financial statements included or incorporated by reference elsewhere in this prospectus. This summary may not contain all of the information that may be important to you. As an investor or prospective investor, you should carefully review the entire prospectus, including the section of this prospectus entitled "Risk Factors" and the more detailed information that appears later in this prospectus or is contained in the documents that we incorporate by reference into this prospectus before making an investment in our securities.
Unless the context otherwise requires, as used in this prospectus, the terms "Company," "we," "us," and "our" refer to Scorpio Bulkers Inc. and all of its subsidiaries.  "Scorpio Bulkers Inc." refers only to Scorpio Bulkers Inc. and not its subsidiaries.  The term "Selling Shareholders" refers to the shareholders described in the section entitled "Selling Shareholders," on page 17.
We use the term deadweight, or dwt, expressed in metric tons, each of which is equivalent to 1,000 kilograms, in describing the size of our vessels. Unless otherwise indicated, all references to "U.S. dollars," "dollars," "U.S.$" and "$" in this prospectus are to the lawful currency of the United States of America.
The term "Scorpio Pools" refers to the Scorpio Kamsarmax Pool and the Scorpio Ultramax Pool, which are spot market-oriented pools of similarly sized vessels operated by companies affiliated with us.
On April 7, 2020, we effected a one-for-ten reverse stock split. All share and per share information throughout this prospectus has been retroactively adjusted to reflect the reverse stock split. The par value was not adjusted as a result of the reverse stock split.
Our Company
We are an international shipping company that owns and operates the latest generation of newbuilding drybulk carriers with fuel-efficient specifications and carrying capacities of greater than 30,000 dwt. Our vessels transport a broad range of major and minor bulk commodities, including ores, coal, grains, and fertilizers, along worldwide shipping routes. We have recently sold eight vessels and contracted to sell fifteen additional vessels, all of which are expected to close in the first half of 2021. Assuming completion of these vessel sales, our operating fleet will consist of 31 vessels, of which 26 are wholly-owned or finance leased drybulk vessels, with an average age of 4.92 years as of December 10, 2020, and five are time chartered-in drybulk vessels, which we refer to collectively as our "Operating Fleet."  A number of the vessels in our Operating Fleet are currently employed in the Scorpio Pools. Our Operating Fleet will have a total carrying capacity of approximately 1.8 million dwt and all of the vessels in our Operating Fleet have carrying capacities of greater than 60,000 dwt.
In addition, in August 2020, we signed a letter of intent to enter into a shipbuilding contract with Daewoo Shipbuilding and Marine Engineering Inc. to build a wind turbine installation vessel ("WTIV") which is expected to be delivered in 2023, with options to construct three further similar vessels. Our purchase of the WTIV is subject to the negotiation and execution of definitive documentation.
Our common shares are listed for trading on the New York Stock Exchange, or NYSE, under the symbol "SALT."
Employment of Our Fleet
We typically operate our vessels in spot market-oriented commercial pools, in the spot market or, under certain circumstances, on time charters.
Spot Market-Oriented Commercial Pools
To increase vessel utilization and thereby revenues, we participate in commercial pools with other shipowners with similar modern, well-maintained vessels. By operating a large number of vessels as an integrated transportation system, commercial pools offer customers greater flexibility and a higher level of service while achieving scheduling efficiencies. Pools employ experienced commercial managers and operators who have close working relationships with customers and brokers, while technical management is performed by each shipowner. The managers of the pools negotiate charters with customers primarily in the spot market but may also arrange time charter agreements. The size and scope of these pools enable them to enhance vessel utilization rates for pool vessels by securing backhaul voyages, which is when cargo is transported on the return leg of a journey, and contracts of affreightment, or COAs, thus generating higher effective time charter equivalent, or TCE, revenues than otherwise might be obtainable in the spot market, while providing a higher level of service offerings to customers.
2

As of the date of this prospectus, a number of the vessels in our Operating Fleet are employed in one of the Scorpio Pools, which exposes us to fluctuations in spot market charter rates. Our vessels participate in the Scorpio Pools under the same contractual terms and conditions as the third party vessels in the pool. Each pool aggregates the revenues and expenses of all of the pool participants and distributes the net earnings calculated on (i) the number of pool points for the vessel, which are based on vessel attributes such as cargo carrying capacity, fuel consumption, and construction characteristics, and (ii) the number of days the vessel operated in the period. Scorpio Commercial Management S.A.M., or SCM, a Monaco corporation controlled by the Lolli-Ghetti family of which our co-founder, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer is a member, as is our Vice President, is responsible for the administration of the pool and the commercial management of the participating vessels, including marketing the pool, negotiating charters, including voyage charters, short duration time charters and COAs, conducting pool operations, including the distribution of pool cash earnings, and managing bunker (fuel oil) purchases, port charges and administrative services for the vessels. SCM, as operator of the Scorpio Pools, charges $300 a day for each vessel, whether owned by us or chartered-in, plus a 1.75% commission on the gross revenues per charter fixture. See "—Management of Our Vessels" below.
The pool participants remain responsible for all other costs including the financing, insurance, manning and technical management of their vessels. The earnings of all of the vessels are aggregated and divided according to the relative performance capabilities of the vessel and the actual earning days each vessel is available.
Spot Market
A spot market voyage charter is generally a contract to carry a specific cargo from a load port to a discharge port for an agreed freight per ton of cargo or a specified total amount. Under spot market voyage charters, we pay specific voyage expenses such as port, canal and bunker costs. Spot charter rates are volatile and fluctuate on a seasonal and year-to-year basis.
Fluctuations derive from imbalances in the availability of cargoes for shipment and the number of vessels available at any given time to transport these cargoes. Vessels operating in the spot market generate revenue that is less predictable than those under time charters, but may enable us to capture increased profit margins during periods of improvements in drybulk vessel charter rates. Downturns in the drybulk industry would result in a reduction in profit margins.
Time Charters
Time charters give us a fixed and stable cash flow for a known period of time. Time charters also mitigate in part the volatility and seasonality of the spot market business, which is generally weaker in the second and third quarters of the year. We opportunistically employ vessels under time charter contracts. We may also enter into time charter contracts with profit sharing agreements, which enable us to benefit when the spot market rates increase.
Management of Our Vessels
In 2016, we agreed to amend our master agreement, or the Master Agreement, with SCM and Scorpio Ship Management S.A.M., or SSM, and our administrative services agreement, or the Administrative Services Agreement, with Scorpio Services Holding Limited, or SSH (both entities controlled by the Lolli-Ghetti family), under a deed of amendment, or the Deed of Amendment. Pursuant to the terms of the Deed of Amendment, on December 9, 2016, we entered into definitive documentation to memorialize the agreed amendments to the Master Agreement, or the Amended and Restated Master Agreement. The Amended and Restated Master Agreement and the Administrative Services Agreement as amended by the Deed of Amendment, or the Amended Administrative Services Agreement, are effective as from September 29, 2016.
In December 2017, we agreed to amend the Amended and Restated Master Agreement to amend and restate the technical management agreement thereunder subject to bank consents being obtained (where required), which were subsequently obtained. On February 22, 2018, we entered into definitive documentation to memorialize the agreed amendments to the Amended and Restated Master Agreement under a deed of amendment, or the Amendment Agreement. The Amended and Restated Master Agreement as amended by the Amendment Agreement, or the Revised Master Agreement, is effective as from January 1, 2018.
Set forth below is a description of the other material terms of the Revised Master Agreement and the Amended Administrative Services Agreement.
3

Commercial and Technical Management - Revised Master Agreement
Our vessels are commercially managed by SCM and technically managed by SSM pursuant to the Revised Master Agreement, which may be terminated by either party upon 24 months' notice, unless terminated earlier in accordance with its terms. In the event of the sale of one or more vessels, a notice period of three months' and a payment equal to three months of management fees will apply, provided that the termination does not amount to a change of control, including a sale of substantially all vessels under management, in which case a payment equal to 24 months of management fees will apply. Additional drybulk vessels that we may charter-in or acquire in the future are expected to be managed under the Revised Master Agreement or on substantially similar terms as the Revised Master Agreement.
SCM's commercial management services include securing employment for our vessels in the spot market or on time charters. SCM also manages the Scorpio Pools (spot market-oriented vessel pools) including the Scorpio Ultramax Pool, the Scorpio Kamsarmax Pool and the currently inactive Scorpio Capesize Pool in which a number of our owned, finance leased and time chartered-in vessels are employed and from which a significant portion of our revenue is generated. For commercial management of any of our vessels that does not operate in one of these pools, we pay SCM a daily fee of $300 per vessel, plus a 1.75% commission on the gross revenues per charter fixture. The Scorpio Ultramax Pool and Scorpio Kamsarmax Pool participants, including us and third-party owners of similar vessels, pay SCM a pool management fee of $300 per vessel per day, plus a 1.75% commission on the gross revenues per charter fixture.
SSM's technical management services include providing technical support, such as arranging the hiring of qualified officers and crew, supervising the maintenance and performance of vessels, purchasing supplies, spare parts and new equipment, arranging and supervising drydocking and repairs, and monitoring regulatory and classification society compliance and customer standards. We pay SSM an annual fee of $160,000 plus charges for certain itemized services per vessel to provide technical management services for each of our owned or finance leased vessels. In addition, representatives of SSM, including certain subcontractors, previously provided us with construction supervisory services while our vessels were being constructed in shipyards. For these services, we compensated SSM between $200,000 and $500,000 per vessel. Representatives of SSM, including certain subcontractors, provide supervisory services during drydocking, for which they are compensated.
Administrative Services - Amended Administrative Services Agreement
In 2016, we entered into the Amended Administrative Services Agreement with SSH for the provision of administrative staff, office space and accounting, legal compliance, financial and information technology services for which we reimburse SSH for the direct and indirect expenses incurred while providing such services. The services provided to us by SSH may be sub-contracted to other entities within the Scorpio group of companies, or Scorpio.
SSH also arranges vessel sales and purchases for us, including newbuildings, for which, in respect of construction contracts executed prior to September 2016, when the Administrative Services Agreement was amended, we previously paid SSH a fee, payable in our common shares. The amount of common shares payable was determined by dividing $250,000 by the market value of our common shares based on the volume weighted average price of our common shares over the 30-trading day period immediately preceding the contract date of a definitive agreement to acquire any vessel. As of the date of this prospectus, we issued an aggregate of 18,072 common shares to SSH in connection with the deliveries of newbuilding vessels.
In addition, SSH has agreed with us not to own any drybulk carriers greater than 30,000 dwt for so long as the Amended Administrative Services Agreement is in full force and effect. This agreement may be terminated by SSH upon 12 months' notice or by us with 24 months' notice.
Corporate Structure
Scorpio Bulkers Inc. was incorporated in the Republic of the Marshall Islands on March 20, 2013. Our principal executive offices are located at 9, Boulevard Charles III, MC 98000 Monaco. Our telephone number at that address is 377 9798 5715. We own our vessels through separate wholly-owned subsidiaries that are incorporated in the Republic of the Marshall Islands. Our website is www.scorpiobulkers.com. The information contained in or connected to our website is not part of this prospectus.
Summary of Risk Factors
The summary below provides an overview of many of the risks we face, and a more detailed discussion of such risks and others we face is set forth in "Item 3—Key Information—D. Risk Factors" in our Annual Report on Form 20-F for the year ended December 31, 2019, filed with the Commission on April 2, 2020, as updated by annual, quarterly and other reports and documents we file with the Commission after the date of this prospectus and that are incorporated by reference herein, and under the caption “Risk Factors” in this prospectus, collectively, the Risk Factors Discussion. Additional risks, beyond those summarized below or discussed in the Risk Factors Discussion or elsewhere in this prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference herein, may also materially and adversely impact our business operations or financial results.

4

Industry Specific Risk Factors
 
Charterhire rates for drybulk vessels are volatile, which has in the past and may in the future adversely affect our earnings, revenue and profitability and our ability to comply with our loan covenants.
 
Global economic conditions may continue to negatively impact the drybulk shipping industry.
 
If economic conditions throughout the world decline, particularly in China and the rest of the Asia-Pacific region, this could negatively affect our results of operations, financial condition, cash flows and ability to obtain financing, and may adversely affect the market price of our common shares.
 
The fair market values of our vessels have declined and may decline further, which could cause us to breach certain financial covenants in our credit facilities, or result in an impairment charge, and we may incur a loss if we sell vessels following a decline in their market value.
 
A reduction in charter rates and other market deterioration may require us to record impairment charges related to our long-lived assets (our vessels) and such charges may be large and have a material impact on our consolidated financial statements.
 
We are subject to complex laws and regulations, including environmental regulations that can adversely affect the cost, manner or feasibility of doing business.
 
An over-supply of drybulk carrier capacity may prolong or further depress the current low charter rates, which may limit our ability to operate our drybulk carriers profitably.
 
Outbreaks of epidemic and pandemic diseases, including COVID-19, and governmental responses thereto could adversely affect our business.
 
World events, including terrorist attacks and political conflicts, could affect our results of operations and financial condition.
 
If our vessels call on ports located in countries that are subject to restrictions, sanctions, or embargoes imposed by the U.S. government, the European Union, the United Nations, or other governments, it could lead to monetary fines or adversely affect our reputation and the market for our shares of common stock and their trading price.
 
Our operating results are subject to seasonal fluctuations, which could affect our operating results.
 
We are subject to international safety regulations and requirements imposed by our classification societies and the failure to comply with these regulations and requirements may subject us to increased liability, may adversely affect our insurance coverage and may result in a denial of access to, or detention in, certain ports.
 
The price of fuel, or bunkers, may affect our profits.
 
We operate drybulk vessels worldwide and as a result, our business has inherent operational risks, which may reduce our revenue or increase our expenses, and we may not be adequately covered by insurance.
 
Failure to comply with the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act could result in fines, criminal penalties, contract terminations and an adverse effect on our business.

5


Company Specific Risk Factors and Risks Relating to our Common Shares

 
We cannot assure you that our available liquidity will be sufficient to meet our ongoing capital and operating needs.
 
We are subject to certain risks with respect to our counterparties on contracts, and failure of such counterparties to meet their obligations could cause us to suffer losses or negatively impact our results of operations and cash flows.
 
We are dependent on spot market-oriented pools and spot charters and currently low spot charter rates, or any further decrease in spot charter rates in the future will result in significant operating losses.
 
We cannot assure you that our Board of Directors will continue to declare dividends.
 
Operating secondhand vessels exposes us to increased operating costs which may adversely affect our earnings and, as our fleet ages, the risks associated with older vessels could adversely affect our ability to obtain profitable charters.
 
The aging of our fleet may result in increased operating costs in the future, which could adversely affect our earnings.
 
In the highly competitive international shipping industry, we may not be able to compete for charters with new entrants or established companies with greater resources, and as a result, we may be unable to employ our vessels profitably.
 
We may be subject to litigation that, if not resolved in our favor and not sufficiently insured against, could have a material adverse effect on us.
 
We are a holding company, and we depend on the ability of our subsidiaries to distribute funds to us in order to satisfy our financial obligations and to make dividend payments.
 
Our costs of operating as a public company are significant, and our management is required to devote substantial time to complying with public company regulations. We cannot assure you that our internal controls and procedures over financial reporting will be sufficient.
 
Because we are organized under the laws of the Marshall Islands, it may be difficult to serve us with legal process or enforce judgments against us, our directors or our management, and the international nature of our operations may make the outcome of any bankruptcy proceedings difficult to predict.
 
We may have to pay tax on U.S. source income, which would reduce our earnings and cash flow.
 
U.S. tax authorities could treat us as a “passive foreign investment company,” which could have adverse U.S. federal income tax consequences to our U.S. shareholders.
 
Servicing our current or future indebtedness limits funds available for other purposes and if we cannot service our debt, we may lose our vessels.
 
We are exposed to volatility in the London Interbank Offered Rate, or LIBOR, and have entered into derivative contracts, which can result in higher than market interest rates and charges against our income.
 
We are leveraged, which could significantly limit our ability to execute our business strategy and we may be unable to comply with our covenants in our credit facilities that impose operating and financial restrictions on us, which could result in a default under the terms of these agreements.
 
We are dependent on our managers and their ability to hire and retain key personnel, and there may be conflicts of interest between us and our managers that may not be resolved in our favor.
 
Our officers do not devote all of their time to our business, which may hinder our ability to operate successfully.
 
The market price of shares of Scorpio Tankers, in which we have a significant investment, has fluctuated widely and may continue to fluctuate widely in the future.
 
The market price of our common shares has fluctuated widely and may fluctuate widely in the future, or there may be no continuing public market for you to resell our common shares.
 
Anti-takeover provisions in our organizational documents could have the effect of discouraging, delaying or preventing a merger or acquisition, or could make it difficult for our shareholders to replace or remove our current Board of Directors, which could adversely affect the market price of our common shares.
6

The Securities We or the Selling Shareholders May Offer
We may use this prospectus to offer, through one or more offerings, up to $500,000,000 of our common shares, preferred shares, debt securities, warrants, rights, purchase contracts, and units. We may also offer securities of the types aforementioned that are convertible or exchangeable into one or more of the securities aforementioned. A prospectus supplement will describe the specific types, amounts, prices, and detailed terms of any of these offered securities and may describe certain risks in addition to those set forth below associated with an investment in the securities. Terms used in the prospectus supplement will have the meanings described in this prospectus, unless otherwise specified.
In addition, the Selling Shareholders identified herein may sell in one or more offerings pursuant to this prospectus up to an aggregate of 3,107,751 of our common shares that were previously acquired as further described herein. We will not receive any of the proceeds from the sale of our common shares by the Selling Shareholders.
7

RISK FACTORS
An investment in our securities involves a high degree of risk.  Before making an investment in our securities, you should carefully consider all of the information included in this prospectus, the risk factors and all of the other information included in any prospectus supplement and the documents that have been incorporated by reference in this prospectus and any prospectus supplement, including those in "Item 3—Key Information—D. Risk Factors" in our Annual Report on Form 20-F for the year ended December 31, 2019, filed with the Commission on April 2, 2020, as updated by annual, quarterly and other reports and documents we file with the Commission after the date of this prospectus and that are incorporated by reference herein. Please see the section of this prospectus entitled "Where You Can Find Additional Information—Information Incorporated by Reference." The occurrence of one or more of those risk factors could adversely impact our business, financial condition or results of operations. When we offer and sell any securities pursuant to a prospectus supplement, we may include additional risk factors relevant to such securities in the prospectus supplement.
8

CAUTIONARY STATEMENT REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
Scorpio Bulkers Inc. desires to take advantage of the safe harbor provisions of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995 and is including this cautionary statement in connection therewith. This document and any other written or oral statements made by us or on our behalf may include forward-looking statements, which reflect our current views with respect to future events and financial performance. The Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995 provides safe harbor protections for forward-looking statements in order to encourage companies to provide prospective information about their business. Forward-looking statements include statements concerning plans, objectives, goals, strategies, future events or performance, and underlying assumptions and other statements, which are other than statements of historical facts. This document includes assumptions, expectations, projections, intentions and beliefs about future events. These statements are intended as "forward-looking statements."  We caution that assumptions, expectations, projections, intentions and beliefs about future events may and often do vary from actual results and the differences can be material. When used in this document, the words "believe," "expect," "anticipate," "estimate," "intend," "plan," "targets," "projects," "likely," "will," "would," "could" and similar expressions or phrases may identify forward-looking statements.
All statements in this document that are not statements of historical fact are forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to, such matters as:

our future operating or financial results;

statements about planned, pending or recent acquisitions, changes to our business or business strategy, and expected capital spending or operating expenses, including drydocking, surveys, upgrades and insurance costs;

the strength of world economies;

the length and severity of the recent novel coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak, including its impact on the demand for seaborne transportation of bulk goods;

the stability of Europe and the Euro;

fluctuations in interest rates and foreign exchange rates;

changes in the supply of drybulk vessels, including when caused by new newbuilding vessel orders or changes to or terminations of existing orders, and vessel scrapping levels;

general drybulk shipping market conditions, including fluctuations in charterhire rates and vessel values;

changes in demand in the drybulk shipping industry, including the market for our vessels;

compliance with, and liabilities under, governmental, tax, environmental and safety laws and regulations;

changes in the value of our vessels;

changes in our operating expenses, including bunker prices, drydocking and insurance costs;

changes in governmental rules and regulations or actions taken by regulatory authorities;

potential liability from pending or future litigation;

general domestic and international political conditions;

potential disruption of shipping routes due to accidents or political events;

our ability to procure or have access to financing, our liquidity and the adequacy of cash flows for our operations;
9


our continued borrowing availability under our debt agreements and compliance with the covenants contained therein;

our ability to successfully employ our vessels;

our ability to fund future capital expenditures and investments in the construction, acquisition and refurbishment of our vessels (including the amount and nature thereof and the timing of completion thereof, the delivery and commencement of operations dates, expected downtime and lost revenue);

risks associated with vessel construction;

potential exposure or loss from investment in derivative instruments or other equity investments in which we invest;

potential conflicts of interest involving members of our board and senior management and our significant shareholders;

our expectations regarding the availability of vessel acquisitions and our ability to complete acquisition transactions planned;

vessel breakdowns and instances of off-hire; and

drybulk shipping market trends, charter rates and factors affecting supply and demand.
We have based these statements on assumptions and analyses formed by applying our experience and perception of historical trends, current conditions, expected future developments and other factors we believe are appropriate in the circumstances. All future written and verbal forward-looking statements attributable to us or any person acting on our behalf are expressly qualified in their entirety by the cautionary statements contained in or referred to in this section. We undertake no obligation, and specifically decline any obligation, except as required by law, to publicly update or revise any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise. In light of these risks, uncertainties and assumptions, the forward-looking events discussed in this prospectus might not occur.
These factors and the other risk factors described in this prospectus are not necessarily all of the important factors that could cause actual results or developments to differ materially from those expressed in any of our forward-looking statements. Other unknown or unpredictable factors also could harm our results. Consequently, there can be no assurance that actual results or developments anticipated by us will be realized or, even if substantially realized, that they will have the expected consequences to, or effects on, us. Given these uncertainties, current and prospective investors are cautioned not to place undue reliance on such forward-looking statements.
10

USE OF PROCEEDS
We intend to use the net proceeds from the sale of securities by us offered by this prospectus as set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement.
We will not receive any proceeds from sales of our common shares by the Selling Shareholders.
11

CAPITALIZATION
A prospectus supplement or report on Form 6-K incorporated by reference into the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part will include information relating to our capitalization.
12

SERVICE OF PROCESS AND ENFORCEMENT OF CIVIL LIABILITIES
We are organized under the laws of the Marshall Islands as a corporation. The Marshall Islands has a less developed body of securities laws as compared to the United States and provides protections for investors to a significantly lesser extent.
Most of our directors and officers are residents of countries other than the United States. Substantially all of our and our subsidiaries' assets and a substantial portion of the assets of our directors and officers are located outside the United States. As a result, it may be difficult or impossible for United States investors to effect service of process within the United States upon us, our directors or officers, or to realize against us or them judgments obtained in United States courts, including judgments predicated upon the civil liability provisions of the securities laws of the United States or any state in the United States. However, we have expressly submitted to the jurisdiction of the U.S. federal and New York state courts sitting in the City of New York for the purpose of any suit, action or proceeding arising under the securities laws of the United States or any state in the United States. The Trust Company of the Marshall Islands, Inc., Trust Company Complex, Ajeltake Island, Ajeltake Road, Majuro, Marshall Islands MH96960, as our registered agent, can accept service of process on our behalf in any such action.

In addition, there is uncertainty as to whether the courts of the Marshall Islands would (1) recognize or enforce against us or our directors or officers judgments of courts of the United States based on civil liability provisions of applicable U.S. federal and state securities laws; or (2) impose liabilities against us or our directors and officers in original actions brought in the Marshall Islands, based on these laws.

13

PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION
We may sell or distribute the securities offered by us pursuant to this prospectus in one or more offerings, including on any stock exchange, quotation service, market or other trading facility on which our securities are listed or traded, in the over-the-counter market, through underwriters, through agents, to dealers, or in private transactions, at fixed prices, at market prices prevailing at the time of sale, at prices related to the prevailing market prices, at varying prices (which may be above or below market prices prevailing at the time of sale), at negotiated prices or otherwise. In addition, the Selling Shareholders, which as used herein includes donees, pledgees, transferees, designees, distributees, or other successors in interest, and their respective affiliates that are direct or indirect equity investors in us, including other successors in interest selling our common shares received after the date of this prospectus from the Selling Shareholders as a gift, pledge, distribution, dividend, or other transfer, may, from time to time, sell, transfer or otherwise dispose of any or all of the common shares offered by the Selling Shareholders pursuant to this prospectus, including on any stock exchange, quotation service, market or other trading facility on which our common shares are listed or traded, in the over-the-counter market, through underwriters, through agents, to dealers, or in private transactions, at fixed prices, at market prices prevailing at the time of sale, at prices related to the prevailing market prices, at varying prices (which may be above or below market prices prevailing at the time of sale), at negotiated prices or otherwise.
We may sell some or all of our securities offered by us pursuant to this prospectus, and the Selling Shareholders may sell, transfer or otherwise dispose of some or all of our common shares offered by the Selling Shareholders pursuant to this prospectus, through:


a distribution by way of a dividend or otherwise to our existing shareholders or existing shareholders of the Selling Shareholders;

one or more block trades in which a broker-dealer will attempt to sell the shares as agent, but may reposition and resell a portion of the block, as principal, in order to facilitate the transaction;

purchases by a broker-dealer, as principal, and resale by the broker-dealer for its account;

ordinary brokerage transactions and transactions in which a broker-dealer solicits purchasers;

underwriters, brokers or dealers (who may act as agents or principals) or directly to one or more purchasers;

an exchange distribution in accordance with the rules of the applicable exchange;

broker-dealers, who may agree with us or the Selling Shareholders to sell a specified number of such shares at a stipulated price per share;

public or privately negotiated transactions;

short sales effected after the date the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part is declared effective by the Commission;

through the writing or settlement of options or other hedging transactions, whether through an options exchange or otherwise;

trading plans entered into by us or the Selling Shareholders pursuant to Rule 10b5-1 under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act, that are in place at the time of an offering pursuant to this prospectus and any applicable prospectus supplement hereto that provide for periodic sales of our securities on the basis of parameters described in such trading plans;

any combination of the foregoing; or

any other method permitted pursuant to applicable law.
We, with respect to the securities offered by us pursuant to this prospectus, and the Selling Shareholders, with respect to the common shares owned by them, may, from time to time, pledge or grant a security interest in some or all such securities or common shares, respectively, and, if we or the Selling Shareholders default in the performance of our secured obligations, the pledgees or secured parties may offer and sell the securities or common shares, as the case may be, from time to time, under this prospectus, or under an amendment to this prospectus under Rule 424(b)(3) or other applicable provision of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, amending the list of selling shareholders to include the donee, pledgee, transferee, designee, distributee or other successors in interest as selling shareholders under this prospectus.  The Selling Shareholders also may transfer the common shares owned by them in other circumstances, in which case the donees, transferees, pledgees, designees, distributees, or other successors in interest will be the selling beneficial owners for purposes of this prospectus.
14

In connection with the sale of our securities we may, and in connection with the common shares owned by them, the Selling Shareholders may, enter into hedging transactions with broker-dealers or other financial institutions, which may in turn engage in short sales of such securities or common shares in the course of hedging the positions they assume.  We or the Selling Shareholders may also sell our securities or common shares short and deliver these securities or common shares to close out our or their short positions, or loan or pledge the securities or common shares to broker-dealers that in turn may sell these securities or common shares. We or the Selling Shareholders may also enter into option or other transactions with broker-dealers or other financial institutions or the creation of one or more derivative securities which require the delivery to such broker-dealer or other financial institution of the securities or common shares offered by this prospectus, which securities or common shares such broker-dealer or other financial institution may resell pursuant to this prospectus (as supplemented or amended to reflect such transaction).
The Selling Shareholders also may sell all or a portion of our common shares in open market transactions in reliance upon Rule 144 under the Securities Act, regardless of whether the shares are offered in this prospectus, provided that they meet the criteria and conform to the requirements of that rule.
There can be no assurance that the Selling Shareholders will sell any or all of our common shares offered by this prospectus.
The aggregate proceeds to the Selling Shareholders from the sale of our common shares offered by them will be the purchase price of the common shares less discounts or commissions, if any. The Selling Shareholders reserve the right to accept and, together with their respective agents from time to time, to reject, in whole or in part, any proposed purchase of common shares to be made directly or through agents.  We will not receive any of the proceeds from the sale of our common shares by the Selling Shareholders.

The Selling Shareholders and any underwriters, broker-dealers or agents that participate in the sale of our securities may be deemed by the Commission to be "underwriters" within the meaning of Section 2(a)(11) of the Securities Act. Any discounts, commissions, concessions or profit they earn on any resale of the securities may therefore be underwriting discounts and commissions under the Securities Act.  A selling shareholder who is deemed by the Commission to be an "underwriter" within the meaning of Section 2(a)(11) of the Securities Act will be subject to the prospectus delivery requirements of the Securities Act.

We have informed the Selling Shareholders, or will inform them, that the anti-manipulation rules of Regulation M, promulgated under the Exchange Act, may apply to sales of our common shares by the Selling Shareholders in the market and to the activities of the Selling Shareholders and their respective affiliates.  In addition, to the extent applicable we will make copies of this prospectus (as it may be supplemented or amended from time to time) available to the Selling Shareholders for the purpose of satisfying the prospectus delivery requirements of the Securities Act.  The Selling Shareholders may indemnify any broker, dealer or agent that participates in transactions involving the sale of our common shares against certain liabilities, including liabilities arising under the Securities Act.
As of the date of this prospectus, we are not a party to any agreement, arrangement or understanding between any broker or dealer and us with respect to the offer or sale of our securities pursuant to this prospectus.
At the time that any particular offering of securities is made, to the extent required by the Securities Act, a prospectus or prospectus supplement or, if appropriate, a post-effective amendment, will be distributed, setting forth the terms of the offering, including the aggregate number of securities being offered, the purchase price of the securities, the public offering price of the securities, the names of any underwriters, dealers or agents and any applicable discounts or commission.
In order to comply with the securities laws of some states, if applicable, our securities may be sold in these jurisdictions only through registered or licensed brokers or dealers.  In addition, in some states our securities may not be sold unless they have been registered or qualified for sale or an exemption from registration or qualification requirements is available and is complied with.
Underwriters or agents could make sales in privately negotiated transactions and/or any other method permitted by law, including sales deemed to be an at-the-market offering as defined in Rule 415 promulgated under the Securities Act, which includes sales made directly on or through the NYSE, the existing trading market for our common shares, or sales made to or through a market maker other than on an exchange.

15

SECURITY OWNERSHIP OF CERTAIN BENEFICIAL OWNERS AND MANAGEMENT
The following table sets forth information regarding beneficial ownership of our common shares for (i) owners of more than five percent of our common shares and (ii) our directors and executive officers, of which we are aware as of December 10, 2020.

Name
 
No. of Shares
 
% Owned (1)
Scorpio Holdings Limited
 
3,107,751
 
(2)
 
26.7
%
GRM Investments Ltd.
 
1,825,643
 
(3)
 
15.7
%
Evermore Global Advisors, LLC *
 
580,041
 
(4)
 
5.0
%
Directors and executive officers as a group
 
902,707
 
(5)
 
7.8
%

____________________

(1)
Calculated based on 11,635,109 common shares outstanding as of December 10, 2020.

(2)
This information is derived from the Schedule 13D/A filed with the Commission on November 27, 2020 by Scorpio Holdings Limited, Scorpio Services Holding Limited, and Ms. Annalisa Lolli-Ghetti. Ms. Annalisa Lolli-Ghetti may be deemed to be the beneficial owner of these shares by virtue of being the majority shareholder of Scorpio Holdings Limited. Emanuele Lauro, our Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Robert Bugbee, our Director and President, and Cameron Mackey, our Chief Operating Officer, own 10%, 10% and 7% of Scorpio Holdings Limited, respectively.

(3)
This information is derived from the Schedule 13G/A filed with the Commission on June 12, 2020.

(4)
This information is derived from the Schedule 13G/A filed with the Commission on January 30, 2020 and has been adjusted to reflect the one-for-ten reverse stock split, effective April 7, 2020.
   
(5)
Assuming the full exercise of call options on 73,000 common shares.

* Includes common shares held by funds managed thereby.

As of December 10, 2020, we had 119 shareholders of record, 39 of which were located in the United States and held an aggregate of 11,293,320 of our common shares, representing 97.1% of our outstanding common shares as of that date. However, one of the U.S. shareholders of record is CEDE & CO., a nominee of The Depository Trust Company, which held 10,931,810 of our common shares as of December 10, 2020. Accordingly, we believe that the shares held by CEDE & CO. include common shares beneficially owned by both holders in the United States and non-U.S. beneficial owners. We are not aware of any arrangements the operation of which may at a subsequent date result in our change of control.
16

SELLING SHAREHOLDERS
This prospectus relates to, among other things, the proposed sale from time to time of up to an aggregate of 3,107,751 of our common shares (as used in this section, the "Selling Shareholder Shares") previously acquired by the Selling Shareholders named in the table below.  We have filed the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part, among other reasons, in order to permit the Selling Shareholders to offer the Selling Shareholder Shares for resale or transfer from time to time as set forth above in "Plan of Distribution."
Scorpio Holdings Limited, a related party to us and member of Scorpio, directly acquired 465,917 of the Selling Shareholder Shares by way of dividend from Scorpio Assets SALT Limited, an indirect wholly-owned subsidiary of Scorpio Holdings Limited and member of Scorpio. In addition, Scorpio Holdings Limited may be deemed to be the beneficial owner of the 2,641,834 Selling Shareholder Shares held directly by Scorpio Services Holding Limited, a related party to us and member of Scorpio, which were acquired by Scorpio Services Holding Limited in open market transactions, transactions directly with us, and as consideration for services provided by Scorpio Services Holding Limited.
The following table sets forth certain information regarding the Selling Shareholders and their beneficial ownership of our common shares. The table is based upon information provided by the Selling Shareholders. The table assumes that all the shares being offered by the Selling Shareholders pursuant to this prospectus are ultimately sold in the offering. The Selling Shareholders may sell some, all or none of their shares covered by this prospectus, and as a result the actual number of shares that will be held by the Selling Shareholders upon termination of the offering may exceed the minimum number set forth in the table.
Name of Selling Shareholder
 
Common Shares Beneficially Owned Before Offering(1)
   
Percentage of Class Prior to the Offering(2)
   
Total Common Shares Offered Hereby
   
Common Shares Owned Following the Offering
   
Percentage of Class Following the Offering
 
Scorpio Holdings Limited (3)
   
3,107,751
     
26.7
%
   
3,107,751
     
0
     
0
%
Scorpio Services Holding Limited (4)
   
2,641,834
     
22.7
%
   
2,641,834
     
0
     
0
%
_________________________

(1)
Beneficial ownership is determined in accordance with the Rule 13d-3(a) of the Exchange Act, and generally includes voting or investment power with respect to securities. Except as subject to community property laws or otherwise as described in the notes below, where applicable, the person named above has voting and investment power with respect to all common shares shown as beneficially owned by it.

(2)
Based on 11,635,109 common shares outstanding as of December 10, 2020.
   
(3)
Scorpio Holdings Limited, is a related party to us and member of Scorpio. Scorpio Holdings Limited may be deemed to be the beneficial owner of the 2,641,834 common shares held by Scorpio Services Holding Limited. In addition, Scorpio Holdings Limited owns 465,917 common shares directly. For more information about our relationship with Scorpio Holdings Limited, please see our Annual Report on Form 20-F for the year ended December 31, 2019, filed with the Commission on April 2, 2020.
   
(4)
Scorpio Services Holding Limited is a related party to us and member of Scorpio. Scorpio Services Holding Limited owns 2,641,834 common shares directly. For more information about our relationship with Scorpio Services Holding Limited, please see our Annual Report on Form 20-F for the year ended December 31, 2019, filed with the Commission on April 2, 2020.
   
17

DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK
The following is a description of the material terms of our amended and restated articles of incorporation, as amended ("amended and restated articles of incorporation"), and amended and restated bylaws. Copies of our amended and restated articles of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws have been filed as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part.
Purpose
Our purpose, as stated in our amended and restated articles of incorporation, is to engage in any lawful act or activity for which corporations may now or hereafter be organized under the Marshall Islands Business Corporations Act, or the BCA. Our amended and restated articles of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws do not impose any limitations on the ownership rights of our shareholders.
Authorized Capital Stock
Under our amended and restated articles of incorporation our authorized capital stock consists of 31,875,000 common shares, par value $0.01 per share, of which 11,635,109 common shares were issued and outstanding as of December 10, 2020 (excluding 1,609,056 treasury shares), and 50,000,000 preferred shares, par value $0.01 per share, of which no shares are issued and outstanding.
Share History
In November 2017, in connection with the purchase of three Ultramax vessels, we issued warrants to purchase approximately 160,000 common shares at an exercise price of $81.00 per share to an unaffiliated third party as part of the total consideration paid. The warrants were exercised and we issued the shares in January 2018.
On December 29, 2017, in connection with our purchase of one 2015-built Ultramax vessel, we issued 91,080 common shares, par value $0.01 per share, to the parent of the seller.
On April 7, 2020, our board of directors effected a one-for-ten reverse stock split of our common shares, par value $0.01 per share, and a reduction in the total number of authorized common shares to 31,875,000 shares. The reverse stock split reduced the number of outstanding common shares from approximately 72.5 million shares to approximately 7.2 million shares. Our shareholders approved the reverse stock split and change in authorized common shares at our annual general meeting of shareholders held on April 3, 2020.
In June 2020, we issued approximately 4.7 million common shares, par value $0.01 per share, at $18.46 per share in an underwritten public offering (which includes the exercise in full of the underwriters' option to purchase additional shares). We received approximately $82.3 million of net proceeds from the issuance. SSH, a Selling Shareholder, purchased 950,000 common shares in the offering at the public offering price.
During the period from January 1, 2020 through December 10, 2020, we issued an aggregate of 425,000 restricted shares to certain of our directors, officers, and employees and SSH employees pursuant to our Equity Incentive Plan, which are subject to certain vesting restrictions. For additional information regarding our Equity Incentive Plan and issuances of common shares thereunder, please see our Annual Report on Form 20-F for the year ended December 31, 2019, filed with the Commission on April 2, 2020, which is incorporated by reference herein.
In January 2019, our Board of Directors authorized a Securities Repurchase Program to purchase up to an aggregate of $50.0 million of our securities (the "Program"). During the period from October 1, 2020 through December 10, 2020, we repurchased approximately 0.8 million of our common shares under the Program for an aggregate purchase price of approximately $11.3 million (or at an average purchase price of $15.01 per repurchased share), funded from available cash resources. Approximately $38.7 million remains available for further repurchases under the Program.
Common Shares
Each outstanding common share entitles the holder to one vote on all matters submitted to a vote of shareholders. Subject to preferences that may be applicable to any outstanding preferred shares, holders of common shares are entitled to receive ratably all dividends, if any, declared by our board of directors out of funds legally available for dividends. Upon our dissolution or liquidation or the sale of all or substantially all of our assets, after payment in full of all amounts required to be paid to creditors and to the holders of preferred stock having liquidation preferences, if any, the holders of our common shares are entitled to receive pro rata our remaining assets available for distribution. Holders of common shares do not have conversion, redemption or pre-emptive rights to subscribe to any of our securities. The rights, preferences and privileges of holders of our common shares are subject to the rights of the holders of any preferred shares, which we may issue in the future.
18

Preferred Shares
Our amended and restated articles of incorporation authorize our board of directors to establish one or more series of preferred shares and to determine, with respect to any series of preferred shares, the terms and rights of that series, including:

the designation of the series;

the number of shares of the series;

the preferences and relative, participating, option or other special rights, if any, and any qualifications, limitations or restrictions of such series; and

the voting rights, if any, of the holders of the series.
Directors
Our directors are elected by a plurality of the votes cast by shareholders entitled to vote. There is no provision for cumulative voting.
Our amended and restated bylaws require our board of directors to consist of at least one member. Our board of directors currently consists of eight members. Our amended and restated bylaws may be amended by the vote of a majority of our entire board of directors.
Directors are elected annually on a staggered basis, and each director elected holds office for a three year term or until his or her successor shall have been duly elected and qualified, except in the event of his or her death, resignation, removal, or the earlier termination of his or her term of office.
Shareholder Meetings
Under our amended and restated bylaws, annual meetings of shareholders will be held at a time and place selected by our board of directors. The meetings may be held in or outside of the Marshall Islands. Special meetings may be called at any time by a majority of our board of directors, the chairman of our board of directors, an officer of the Company who is also a director or a majority of the shares then outstanding and eligible to vote. Our board of directors may set a record date between 15 and 60 days before the date of any meeting to determine the shareholders that will be eligible to receive notice and vote at the meeting. One or more shareholders representing at least one-third of the total voting rights of our total issued and outstanding shares present in person or by proxy at a shareholder meeting shall constitute a quorum for the purposes of the meeting.
Dissenters' Rights of Appraisal and Payment
Under the BCA, our shareholders have the right to dissent from various corporate actions, including any merger or consolidation and the sale of all or substantially all of our assets not made in the usual course of our business, and receive payment of the fair value of their shares. In the event of any further amendment of our amended and restated articles of incorporation, a shareholder also has the right to dissent and receive payment for his or her shares if the amendment alters certain rights in respect of those shares. The dissenting shareholder must follow the procedures set forth in the BCA to receive payment. In the event that we and any dissenting shareholder fail to agree on a price for the common shares, the BCA procedures involve, among other things, the institution of proceedings in the high court of the Republic of The Marshall Islands or in any appropriate court in any jurisdiction in which our shares are primarily traded on a local or national securities exchange.
Shareholders' Derivative Actions
Under the BCA, any of our shareholders may bring an action in our name to procure a judgment in our favor, also known as a derivative action, provided that the shareholder bringing the action is a holder of common shares both at the time the derivative action is commenced and at the time of the transaction to which the action relates.
19

Limitations on Liability and Indemnification of Officers and Directors
The BCA authorizes corporations to limit or eliminate the personal liability of directors to corporations and their shareholders for monetary damages for breaches of directors' fiduciary duties. Our amended and restated articles of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws include a provision that eliminates the personal liability of directors for monetary damages for actions taken as a director to the fullest extent permitted by law.
Our amended and restated bylaws provide that we must indemnify our directors and officers to the fullest extent authorized by law. We are also expressly authorized to advance certain expenses (including attorney's fees and disbursements and court costs) to our directors and officers and carry directors' and officers' insurance providing indemnification for our directors, officers and certain employees for some liabilities. We believe that these indemnification provisions and this insurance are useful to attract and retain qualified directors and officers.
The limitation of liability and indemnification provisions in our amended and restated articles of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws may discourage shareholders from bringing a lawsuit against directors for breach of their fiduciary duty. These provisions may also have the effect of reducing the likelihood of derivative litigation against directors and officers, even though such an action, if successful, might otherwise benefit us and our shareholders. In addition, your investment may be adversely affected to the extent we pay the costs of settlement and damage awards against directors and officers pursuant to these indemnification provisions.
Insofar as indemnification for liabilities arising under the Securities Act may be permitted to our directors, officers and controlling persons pursuant to the foregoing provisions, or otherwise, we have been informed that in the opinion of the Commission, such indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act and is, therefore, unenforceable.
There is currently no pending material litigation or proceeding involving any of our directors, officers or employees for which indemnification is sought.
Anti-takeover Effect of Certain Provisions of our Amended and Restated Articles of Incorporation and Amended and Restated Bylaws
Several provisions of our amended and restated articles of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws, which are summarized below, may have anti-takeover effects. These provisions are intended to avoid costly takeover battles, lessen our vulnerability to a hostile change of control and enhance the ability of our board of directors to maximize shareholder value in connection with any unsolicited offer to acquire us. However, these anti-takeover provisions, which are summarized below, could also discourage, delay or prevent (1) the merger or acquisition of us by means of a tender offer, a proxy contest or otherwise that a shareholder may consider in its best interest and (2) the removal of incumbent officers and directors.
Blank check preferred stock
Under the terms of our amended and restated articles of incorporation, our board of directors has authority, without any further vote or action by our shareholders, to issue up to 50,000,000 shares of blank check preferred stock. Our board of directors may issue preferred shares on terms calculated to discourage, delay or prevent a change of control of us or the removal of our management and might harm the market price of our common shares. We have no current plans to issue any preferred shares.
Election and removal of directors
Our amended and restated articles of incorporation prohibit cumulative voting in the election of directors. Our amended and restated bylaws require parties other than the board of directors to give advance written notice of nominations for the election of directors. Our amended and restated articles of incorporation also provide that our directors may be removed for cause upon the affirmative vote of not less than two-thirds of the outstanding shares of our capital stock entitled to vote for those directors. These provisions may discourage, delay or prevent the removal of incumbent officers and directors.
Limited actions by shareholders
Our amended and restated articles of incorporation and our amended and restated bylaws provide that any action required or permitted to be taken by our shareholders must be effected at an annual or special meeting of shareholders or by the unanimous written consent of our shareholders. Our amended and restated articles of incorporation and our amended and restated bylaws provide that, unless otherwise prescribed by law, only a majority of our board of directors, the chairman of our board of directors or an officer of the Company who is also a director may call special meetings of our shareholders and the business transacted at the special meeting is limited to the purposes stated in the notice. Accordingly, a shareholder will be prevented from calling a special meeting for shareholder consideration of a proposal unless scheduled by our board of directors and shareholder consideration of a proposal may be delayed until the next annual meeting.
20

Advance notice requirements for shareholder proposals and director nominations
Our amended and restated bylaws provide that shareholders seeking to nominate candidates for election as directors or to bring business before an annual meeting of shareholders must provide timely notice of their proposal in writing to the corporate secretary. Generally, to be timely, a shareholder's notice must be received at our principal executive offices not less than 150 days nor more than 180 days prior to the one year anniversary of the immediately preceding annual meeting of shareholders. Our amended and restated bylaws also specify requirements as to the form and content of a shareholder's notice. These provisions may impede shareholders' ability to bring matters before an annual meeting of shareholders or make nominations for directors at an annual meeting of shareholders.
Classified board of directors
As described above, our amended and restated articles of incorporation provide for the division of our board of directors into three classes of directors, with each class as nearly equal in number as possible, serving staggered three year terms beginning on the expiration of the initial term for each class. Accordingly, approximately one-third of our board of directors will be elected each year. This classified board provision could discourage a third party from making a tender offer for our shares or attempting to obtain control of us. It could also delay shareholders who do not agree with the policies of our board of directors from removing a majority of our board of directors for two years.
Business combinations
Although the BCA does not contain specific provisions regarding "business combinations" between companies organized under the laws of the Marshall Islands and "interested shareholders," we have included these provisions in our amended and restated articles of incorporation. Specifically, our amended and restated articles of incorporation prohibit us from engaging in a "business combination" with certain persons for three years following the date the person becomes an interested shareholder. Interested shareholders generally include:

any person who is the beneficial owner of 15% or more of our outstanding voting shares; or

any person who is our affiliate or associate and who held 15% or more of our outstanding voting shares at any time within three years before the date on which the person's status as an interested shareholder is determined, and the affiliates and associates of such person.
Subject to certain exceptions, a business combination includes, among other things:

certain mergers or consolidations of us or any direct or indirect majority-owned subsidiary of ours;

any sale, lease, exchange, mortgage, pledge, transfer or other disposition of our assets or of any subsidiary of ours having an aggregate market value equal to 10% or more of either the aggregate market value of all of our assets, determined on a combined basis, or the aggregate value of all of our outstanding shares;

certain transactions that result in the issuance or transfer by us of any shares of ours to the interested shareholder;

any transaction involving us or any of our subsidiaries that has the effect of increasing the proportionate share of any class or series of stock, or securities convertible into any class or series of stock, of ours or any such subsidiary that is owned directly or indirectly by the interested shareholder or any affiliate or associate of the interested shareholder; and

any receipt by the interested shareholder of the benefit directly or indirectly (except proportionately as a shareholder) of any loans, advances, guarantees, pledges or other financial benefits provided by or through us.
These provisions of our amended and restated articles of incorporation do not apply to a business combination if:


before a person became an interested shareholder, our board of directors approved either the business combination or the transaction in which the shareholder became an interested shareholder;
21


upon consummation of the transaction which resulted in the shareholder becoming an interested shareholder, the interested shareholder owned at least 85% of our voting shares outstanding at the time the transaction commenced, other than certain excluded shares;

at or following the transaction in which the person became an interested shareholder, the business combination is approved by our board of directors and authorized at an annual or special meeting of shareholders, and not by written consent, by the affirmative vote of the holders of at least two-thirds of our outstanding voting shares that is not owned by the interest shareholder;

the shareholder was or became an interested shareholder prior to the closing of our initial public offering;

a shareholder became an interested shareholder inadvertently and (i) as soon as practicable divested itself of ownership of sufficient shares so that the shareholder ceased to be an interested shareholder; and (ii) would not, at any time within the three-year period immediately prior to a business combination between us and such shareholder, have been an interested shareholder but for the inadvertent acquisition of ownership; or

the business combination is proposed prior to the consummation or abandonment of and subsequent to the earlier of the public announcement or the notice required under our amended and restated articles of incorporation which (i) constitutes one of the transactions described in the following sentence; (ii) is with or by a person who either was not an interested shareholder during the previous three years or who became an interested shareholder with the approval of the board; and (iii) is approved or not opposed by a majority of the members of the board of directors then in office (but not less than one) who were directors prior to any person becoming an interested shareholder during the previous three years or were recommended for election or elected to succeed such directors by a majority of such directors.
The proposed transactions referred to in the preceding sentence are limited to:


a merger or consolidation of us (except for a merger in respect of which, pursuant to the BCA, no vote of our shareholders is required);

a sale, lease, exchange, mortgage, pledge, transfer or other disposition (in one transaction or a series of transactions), whether as part of a dissolution or otherwise, of assets of us or of any direct or indirect majority-owned subsidiary of ours (other than to any direct or indirect wholly-owned subsidiary or to us) having an aggregate market value equal to 50% or more of either the aggregate market value of all of our assets determined on a consolidated basis or the aggregate market value of all the outstanding shares; or

a proposed tender or exchange offer for 50% or more of our outstanding voting shares.
Transfer Agent
The registrar and transfer agent for our common shares is Computershare Inc.
22

DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES
We may offer and issue debt securities from time to time in one or more series, under one or more indentures, each dated as of a date on or prior to the issuance of the debt securities to which it relates, and pursuant to an applicable prospectus supplement. We may issue senior debt securities and subordinated debt securities pursuant to separate indentures, a senior indenture and a subordinated indenture, respectively, in each case between us and the trustee named in the indenture. These indentures will be filed either as exhibits to an amendment to the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part or as an exhibit to a report under the Exchange Act, that will be incorporated by reference into the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part or a prospectus supplement. We refer to any applicable prospectus supplement, amendment to the registration statement and/or Exchange Act reports as "subsequent filings." The senior indenture and the subordinated indenture, as amended or supplemented from time to time, are each referred to individually as an "indenture" and collectively as the "indentures." Each indenture will be subject to and governed by the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended, or the Trust Indenture Act, and will be construed in accordance with and governed by the laws of the State of New York (without giving effect to any principles thereof relating to conflicts of law that would result in the application of the laws of any other jurisdiction) unless otherwise stated in the applicable prospectus supplement and indenture (or post-effective amendment hereto).  Each indenture will contain the specific terms of any series of debt securities or provide that those terms must be set forth in or determined pursuant to, an authorizing resolution, as defined in the applicable prospectus supplement or a supplemental indenture, if any, relating to such series.
The following description sets forth certain general terms and provisions of the debt securities. The particular terms and provisions of the debt securities offered by any prospectus supplement, and the extent to which the general terms and provisions described below may apply to the offered debt securities, will be described in the applicable subsequent filings.  The statements below are not complete and are subject to, and are qualified in their entirety by reference to, all of the provisions of the applicable indenture. The specific terms of any debt securities that we may offer, including any modifications of, or additions to, the general terms described below as well as any applicable material U.S. federal income tax considerations concerning the ownership of such debt securities will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement and indenture and, as applicable, supplemental indenture. Accordingly, for a complete description of the terms of a particular issue of debt securities, the general description of the debt securities set forth below should be read in conjunction with the applicable prospectus supplement and indenture, as amended or supplemented from time to time.
General
We expect that neither indenture will limit the amount of debt securities which may be issued and that each indenture will provide that debt securities may be issued in one or more series.
We expect that the subsequent filings related to a series of offered debt securities will describe the following terms of the series:

the designation, aggregate principal amount and authorized denominations;

the issue price, expressed as a percentage of the aggregate principal amount;

the maturity date;

the interest rate per annum, if any;

if the debt securities provide for interest payments, the date from which interest will accrue, the dates on which interest will be payable, the date on which payment of interest will commence and the regular record dates for interest payment dates;

whether the debt securities will be our senior or subordinated securities;

whether the debt securities will be our secured or unsecured obligations;

the applicability and terms of any guarantees;

any period or periods during which, and the price or prices at which, we will have the option to or be required to redeem or repurchase the debt securities of the series and the other material terms and provisions applicable to such  redemption or repurchase;

any optional or mandatory sinking fund provisions;
23


any conversion or exchangeability provisions;

if other than denominations of $1,000 and any integral multiple thereof, the denominations in which debt securities of the series will be issuable;

if other than the full principal amount, the portion of the principal amount of the debt securities of the series which will be payable upon acceleration or provable in bankruptcy;

any events of default not set forth in this prospectus;

the currency or currencies, including composite currencies, in which principal, premium and interest will be payable, if other than the currency of the United States of America;

if principal, premium or interest is payable, at our election or at the election of any holder, in a currency other than that in which the debt securities of the series are stated to be payable, the period or periods within which, and the terms and conditions upon which, the election may be made;

whether interest will be payable in cash or additional securities at our or the holder's option and the terms and conditions upon which the election may be made;

if denominated in a currency or currencies other than the currency of the United States of America, the equivalent price in the currency of the United States of America for purposes of determining the voting rights of holders of those debt securities under the applicable indenture;

if the amount of payments of principal, premium or interest may be determined with reference to an index, formula or other method based on a coin or currency other than that in which the debt securities of the series are stated to be payable, the manner in which the amounts will be determined;

any covenants or other material terms relating to the debt securities;

whether the debt securities will be issued in the form of global securities or certificates in registered form;

any listing on any securities exchange or quotation system;

additional provisions, if any, related to defeasance and discharge of the debt securities; and

any other special features of the debt securities.
Subsequent filings may include additional terms not listed above. Unless otherwise indicated in subsequent filings with the Commission relating to the indenture, principal, premium and interest will be payable and the debt securities will be transferable at the corporate trust office of the applicable trustee. Unless other arrangements are made or set forth in subsequent filings or a supplemental indenture, principal, premium and interest will be paid by checks mailed to the registered holders at their registered addresses.
Unless otherwise indicated in subsequent filings with the Commission, the debt securities will be issued only in fully registered form without coupons, in denominations of $1,000 or any integral multiple thereof. No service charge will be made for any transfer or exchange of the debt securities, but we may require payment of a sum sufficient to cover any tax or other governmental charge payable in connection with these debt securities.
Some or all of the debt securities may be issued as discounted debt securities, bearing no interest or interest at a rate which at the time of issuance is below market rates, to be sold at a substantial discount below the stated principal amount. United States federal income tax consequences and other special considerations applicable to any discounted securities will be described in subsequent filings with the Commission relating to those securities.
We refer you to the applicable subsequent filings for the particular terms and provisions of the debt securities offered by any prospectus supplement.
24

Senior Debt Securities
We may issue senior debt securities under a senior debt indenture. These senior debt securities would rank on an equal basis with all our other unsubordinated debt.
Subordinated Debt Securities
We may issue subordinated debt securities under a subordinated debt indenture. These subordinated debt securities would rank subordinate and junior in priority of payment to certain of our other indebtedness to the extent described in the applicable prospectus supplement.
Covenants
Any series of offered debt securities may have covenants in addition to or differing from those included in the applicable indenture which will be described in subsequent filings prepared in connection with the offering of such securities, limiting or restricting, among other things:

our ability to incur either secured or unsecured debt, or both;

our ability to make certain payments, dividends, redemptions or repurchases;

our ability to create dividend and other payment restrictions affecting our subsidiaries;

our ability to make investments;

mergers and consolidations by us;

sales of assets by us;

our ability to enter into transactions with affiliates;

our ability to incur liens; and

sale and leaseback transactions.
Modification of the Indentures
We expect that each indenture and the rights of the respective holders generally may be modified by us only with the consent of holders of not less than a majority in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of all series under the respective indenture affected by the modification, taken together as a class. But we expect that no modification that:
 (1) changes the amount of securities whose holders must consent to an amendment, supplement or waiver;
 (2) reduces the rate of or changes the interest payment time on any security or alters its redemption provisions (other than any alteration to any such section which would not materially adversely affect the legal rights of any holder under the indenture) or the price at which we are required to offer to purchase the securities;
 (3) reduces the principal or changes the maturity of any security or reduces the amount of, or postpones the date fixed for, the payment of any sinking fund or analogous obligation;
 (4) waives a default or event of default in the payment of the principal of or interest, if any, on any security (except a rescission of acceleration of the securities of any series by the holders of at least a majority in principal amount of the outstanding securities of that series and a waiver of the payment default that resulted from such acceleration);
25

 (5) makes the principal of or interest, if any, on any security payable in any currency other than that stated in the security;
 (6) makes any change with respect to holders' rights to receive principal and interest, the terms pursuant to which defaults can be waived, certain modifications affecting shareholders or certain currency-related issues; or
 (7) waives a redemption payment with respect to any security or changes any of the provisions with respect to the redemption of any securities;
will be effective against any holder without his consent.
Additionally, certain changes under each indenture will not require the consent of any holders.  These types of changes are generally limited to clarifications of ambiguities, omissions, defects and inconsistencies in each indenture and amendments, supplements and other changes that would not adversely affect the holders of outstanding debt securities under each indenture, such as adding security, covenants, additional events of default or successor trustees.
Events of Default
We expect that each indenture will define an event of default for the debt securities of any series as being any one of the following events:

default in any payment of interest when due which continues for 30 days;

default in any payment of principal or premium when due;

default in the deposit of any sinking fund payment when due;

default in the performance of any covenant in the debt securities or the applicable indenture which continues for 60 days after we receive notice of the default;

default under a bond, debenture, note or other evidence of indebtedness for borrowed money by us or our subsidiaries (to the extent we are directly responsible or liable therefor) having a principal amount in excess of a minimum amount set forth in the applicable subsequent filings, whether such indebtedness now exists or is hereafter created, which default shall have resulted in such indebtedness becoming or being declared due and payable prior to the date on which it would otherwise have become due and payable, without such acceleration having been rescinded or annulled or cured within 30 days after we receive notice of the default; and

events of bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization.
An event of default of one series of debt securities will not necessarily constitute an event of default with respect to any other series of debt securities.
There may be such other or different events of default as described in an applicable subsequent filing with respect to any class or series of offered debt securities.
We expect that under each indenture, in case an event of default occurs and continues for the debt securities of any series, the applicable trustee or the holders of not less than 25% in aggregate principal amount of the debt securities then outstanding of that series may declare the principal and accrued but unpaid interest of the debt securities of that series to be due and payable. Further, any event of default for the debt securities of any series which has been cured is expected to be permitted to be waived by the holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the debt securities of that series then outstanding.
We expect that each indenture will require us to file annually, after debt securities are issued under that indenture, with the applicable trustee a written statement signed by two of our officers as to the absence of material defaults under the terms of that indenture. We also expect that each indenture will provide that the applicable trustee may withhold notice to the holders of any default if it considers it in the interest of the holders to do so, except notice of a default in payment of principal, premium or interest.
26

Subject to the duties of the trustee in case an event of default occurs and continues, we expect that each indenture will provide that the trustee is under no obligation to exercise any of its rights or powers under that indenture at the request, order or direction of holders unless the holders have offered to the trustee reasonable indemnity. Subject to these provisions for indemnification and the rights of the trustee, each indenture is expected to provide that the holders of a majority in principal amount of the debt securities of any series then outstanding have the right to direct the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the trustee or exercising any trust or power conferred on the trustee as long as the exercise of that right does not conflict with any law or the indenture.
Defeasance and Discharge
The terms of each indenture are expected to provide us with the option to be discharged from any and all obligations in respect of the debt securities issued thereunder upon the deposit with the trustee, in trust, of money or U.S. government obligations, or both, which through the payment of interest and principal will provide money in an amount sufficient to pay any installment of principal, premium and interest on, and any mandatory sinking fund payments in respect of, the debt securities on the stated maturity of the payments in accordance with the terms of the debt securities and the indenture governing the debt securities.
We expect that this right may only be exercised if, among other things, we have received from, or there has been published by, the United States Internal Revenue Service a ruling to the effect that such a discharge will not be deemed, or result in, a taxable event with respect to holders. This discharge would not apply to our obligations to register the transfer or exchange of debt securities, to replace stolen, lost or mutilated debt securities, to maintain paying agencies and hold moneys for payment in trust.
Defeasance of Certain Covenants
We expect that the terms of each indenture will provide us with the right to omit complying with specified covenants and specified events of default described in a subsequent filing upon the deposit with the trustee, in trust, of money or U.S. government obligations, or both, which through the payment of interest and principal will provide money in an amount sufficient to pay any installment of principal, premium and interest on, and any mandatory sinking fund payments in respect of, the debt securities on the stated maturity of the payments in accordance with the terms of the debt securities and the indenture governing the debt securities.
We expect that to exercise this right we will also be required to deliver to the trustee an opinion of counsel to the effect that we have received from, or there has been published by, the United States Internal Revenue Service a ruling to the effect that the deposit and related covenant defeasance will not cause the holders of such series to recognize income, gain or loss for United States federal income tax purposes.
A subsequent filing may further describe the provisions, if any, of any particular series of offered debt securities permitting a discharge defeasance.
Form of Debt Securities
Each debt security will be represented either by a certificate issued in definitive form to a particular investor or by one or more global securities representing the entire issuance of securities. Both certificated securities in definitive form and global securities may be issued either in registered form, where our obligation runs to the holder of the security named on the face of the security, or in bearer form, where our obligation runs to the bearer of the security.
Definitive securities name you or your nominee as the owner of the security, other than definitive bearer securities, which name the bearer as owner, and in order to transfer or exchange these securities or to receive payments other than interest or other interim payments, you or your nominee must physically deliver the securities to the trustee, registrar, paying agent or other agent, as applicable.
Global securities name a depositary or its nominee as the owner of the debt securities represented by these global securities, other than global bearer securities, which name the bearer as owner. The depositary maintains a computerized system that will reflect each investor's beneficial ownership of the securities through an account maintained by the investor with its broker/dealer, bank, trust company or other representative, as we explain more fully below.
27

Global Securities
We may issue the debt securities in the form of one or more fully registered global securities that will be deposited with a depositary or its nominee identified in the applicable prospectus supplement and registered in the name of that depositary or nominee. In those cases, one or more registered global securities will be issued in a denomination or aggregate denominations equal to the portion of the aggregate principal or face amount of the securities to be represented by registered global securities. Unless and until it is exchanged in whole for securities in definitive registered form, a registered global security may not be transferred except as a whole by and among the depositary for the registered global security, the nominees of the depositary or any successors of the depositary or those nominees. If not described below, any specific terms of the depositary arrangement with respect to any debt securities to be represented by a registered global security will be described in the prospectus supplement relating to those debt securities. We anticipate that the following provisions will apply to all depositary arrangements:
Ownership of beneficial interests in a registered global security will be limited to persons, called participants, that have accounts with the depositary or persons that may hold interests through participants. Upon the issuance of a registered global security, the depositary will credit, on its book-entry registration and transfer system, the participants' accounts with the respective principal or face amounts of the securities beneficially owned by the participants. Any dealers, underwriters or selling agents participating in the distribution of the securities will designate the accounts to be credited. Ownership of beneficial interests in a registered global security will be shown on, and the transfer of ownership interests will be effected only through, records maintained by the depositary, with respect to interests of participants, and on the records of participants, with respect to interests of persons holding through participants. The laws of some jurisdictions may require that some purchasers of securities take physical delivery of these securities in definitive form. These laws may impair your ability to own, transfer or pledge beneficial interests in registered global securities. So long as the depositary, or its nominee, is the registered owner of a registered global security, that depositary or its nominee, as the case may be, will be considered the sole owner or holder of the securities represented by the registered global security for all purposes under the indenture.
Except as described below, owners of beneficial interests in a registered global security will not be entitled to have the securities represented by the registered global security registered in their names, will not receive or be entitled to receive physical delivery of the securities in definitive form and will not be considered the owners or holders of the securities under the indenture. Accordingly, each person owning a beneficial interest in a registered global security must rely on the procedures of the depositary for that registered global security and, if that person is not a participant, on the procedures of the participant through which the person owns its interest in that registered global security, to exercise any rights of a holder under the indenture. We understand that under existing industry practices, if we request any action of holders of a registered global security or if an owner of a beneficial interest in a registered global security desires to give or take any action that a holder is entitled to give or take under the indenture, the depositary for the registered global security would authorize the participants holding the relevant beneficial interests to give or take that action, and the participants would authorize beneficial owners owning through them to give or take that action or would otherwise act upon the instructions of beneficial owners holding through them.
Principal, premium, if any, and interest payments on debt securities represented by a registered global security registered in the name of a depositary or its nominee will be made to the depositary or its nominee, as the case may be, as the registered owner of the registered global security. None of us, the trustee or any other agent of us or agent of the trustee will have any responsibility or liability to owners of beneficial interests for any aspect of the records relating to payments made on account of beneficial ownership interests in the registered global security or for maintaining, supervising or reviewing any records relating to those beneficial ownership interests. We expect that the depositary for any of the securities represented by a registered global security, upon receipt of any payment of principal, premium, interest or other distribution of underlying securities or other property to holders on that registered global security, will immediately credit participants' accounts in amounts proportionate to their respective beneficial interests in that registered global security as shown on the records of the depositary. We also expect that payments by participants to owners of beneficial interests in a registered global security held through participants will be governed by standing customer instructions and customary practices, as is now the case with the securities held for the accounts of customers in bearer form or registered in "street name," and will be the responsibility of those participants.
We expect that the indenture will provide that if the depositary for any of these securities represented by a registered global security is at any time unwilling or unable to continue as depositary or ceases to be a clearing agency registered under the Exchange Act, and a successor depositary registered as a clearing agency under the Exchange Act is not appointed by us within 90 days, we will be required to issue securities in definitive form in exchange for the registered global security that had been held by the depositary. In addition, the indenture is expected to allow us to decide, at any time and in our sole discretion, to not have any of the securities represented by one or more registered global securities. If we make that decision, we will issue securities in definitive form in exchange for all of the registered global security or securities representing those securities. Any securities issued in definitive form in exchange for a registered global security will be registered in the name or names that the depositary gives to the relevant trustee or other relevant agent of ours or theirs. It is expected that the depositary's instructions will be based upon directions received by the depositary from participants with respect to ownership of beneficial interests in the registered global security that had been held by the depositary.
If we issue registered global securities, we expect that the Depository Trust Company, or DTC, will act as depository and the securities will be registered in the name of Cede & Co., as DTC's nominee.
28

DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS
We may issue warrants to purchase any of our debt or equity securities or securities of third parties or other rights, including rights to receive payment in cash or securities based on the value, rate or price of one or more specified currencies, securities or indices, or any combination of the foregoing. Warrants may be issued independently or together with any other securities and may be attached to, or separate from, such securities. Each series of warrants will be issued under a separate warrant agreement to be entered into between us and a warrant agent. The terms of any warrants to be issued and a description of the material provisions of the applicable warrant agreement will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement. We expect that such terms will include, among others:

the title of such warrants;

the aggregate number of such warrants;

the price or prices at which such warrants will be issued;

the currency or currencies in which the price of such warrants will be payable;

the securities or other rights, including rights to receive payment in cash or securities based on the value, rate or price of one or more specified currencies, securities or indices, or any combination of the foregoing, purchasable upon exercise of such warrants;

the price at which, and the currency or currencies in which, the securities or other rights purchasable upon exercise of such warrants may be purchased;

the date on which the right to exercise such warrants shall commence and the date on which such right shall expire;

if applicable, the minimum or maximum amount of such warrants which may be exercised at any one time;

if applicable, the designation and terms of the securities with which such warrants are issued and the number of such warrants issued with each such security;

if applicable, the date on and after which such warrants and the related securities will be separately transferable;

information with respect to book-entry procedures, if any;

if applicable, a discussion of any material U.S. federal income tax considerations; and

any other terms of such warrants, including terms, procedures and limitations relating to the exchange and exercise of such warrants.
The warrants will be construed in accordance with and governed by the laws of the State of New York, without giving effect to any principles thereof relating to conflicts of law that would result in the application of the laws of any other jurisdiction, unless otherwise stated in the applicable prospectus supplement (or a post-effective amendment hereto).
29

DESCRIPTION OF RIGHTS
We may issue rights to purchase our equity securities. These rights may be issued independently or together with any other security offered by this prospectus and may or may not be transferable by the shareholder receiving the rights in the rights offering. In connection with any rights offering, we may enter into a standby underwriting agreement with one or more underwriters pursuant to which the underwriter will purchase any securities that remain unsubscribed for upon completion of the rights offering.

The applicable prospectus supplement relating to any rights will describe the terms of the offered rights. We expect that such terms will include, where applicable:


the exercise price for the rights;

the number of rights issued to each shareholder;

the extent to which the rights are transferable;

any other terms of the rights, including terms, procedures and limitations relating to the exchange and exercise of the rights;

the date on which the right to exercise the rights will commence and the date on which the right will expire;

the amount of rights outstanding;

the extent to which the rights include an over-subscription privilege with respect to unsubscribed securities; and

the material terms of any standby underwriting arrangement entered into by us in connection with the rights offering.
The description in the applicable prospectus supplement of any rights we offer will not necessarily be complete and will be qualified in its entirety by reference to the applicable rights certificate or rights agreement, which will be filed with the Commission if we offer rights. For more information on how you can obtain copies of any rights certificate or rights agreement if we offer rights, see "Where You Can Find Additional Information" of this prospectus. We urge you to read the applicable rights certificate, the applicable rights agreement and any applicable prospectus supplement in their entirety.

The rights will be construed in accordance with and governed by the laws of the State of New York, without giving effect to any principles thereof relating to conflicts of law that would result in the application of the laws of any other jurisdiction, unless otherwise stated in the applicable prospectus supplement (or a post-effective amendment hereto).

30

DESCRIPTION OF PURCHASE CONTRACTS
We may issue purchase contracts for the purchase or sale of:

debt or equity securities issued by us, a basket of such securities, an index or indices of such securities, or any combination of the above as specified in the applicable prospectus supplement; or

currencies.
Each purchase contract will entitle the holder thereof to purchase or sell, and obligate us to sell or purchase, on specified dates, such securities or currencies at a specified purchase price, which may be based on a formula, all as set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement. We may, however, satisfy our obligations, if any, with respect to any purchase contract by delivering the cash value of such purchase contract or the cash value of the property otherwise deliverable or, in the case of purchase contracts on underlying currencies, by delivering the underlying currencies, as set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement. The applicable prospectus supplement will also specify the methods by which the holders may purchase or sell such securities or currencies and any acceleration, cancellation or termination provisions, provisions relating to U.S. federal income tax considerations, if any, or other provisions relating to the settlement of a purchase contract.
The purchase contracts may require us to make periodic payments to the holders thereof or vice versa, which payments may be deferred to the extent set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement, and those payments may be unsecured or pre-funded on some basis. The purchase contracts may require the holders thereof to secure their obligations in a specified manner to be described in the applicable prospectus supplement. Alternatively, purchase contracts may require holders to satisfy their obligations thereunder when the purchase contracts are issued. Our obligation to settle such pre-paid purchase contracts on the relevant settlement date may constitute indebtedness. Accordingly, pre-paid purchase contracts will be issued under either a senior indenture or subordinated indenture.

The purchase contracts will be construed in accordance with and governed by the laws of the State of New York, without giving effect to any principles thereof relating to conflicts of law that would result in the application of the laws of any other jurisdiction, unless otherwise stated in the applicable prospectus supplement (or a post-effective amendment hereto).
31

DESCRIPTION OF UNITS
As specified in the applicable prospectus supplement, we may issue units consisting of one or more purchase contracts, warrants, debt securities, preferred shares, common shares, rights or any combination of such securities. The applicable prospectus supplement will describe the terms of the offered units. We expect that such terms will include, among others:

the terms of the units and of the purchase contracts, warrants, debt securities, preferred shares, common shares and/or rights comprising the units, including whether and under what circumstances the securities comprising the units may be traded separately;

a description of the terms of any unit agreement governing the units;

if applicable, a discussion of any material U.S. federal income tax considerations; and

a description of the provisions for the payment, settlement, transfer or exchange of the units.
32

TAX CONSIDERATIONS
Our Annual Report on Form 20-F filed with the Commission on April 2, 2020, as updated by annual and other reports and documents that we file with the Commission after the date of this prospectus and that are incorporated by reference herein, provides a discussion of the material U.S. federal income and Marshall Islands tax considerations that may be relevant to prospective investors in our common shares. The applicable prospectus supplement may also contain information about any material U.S. federal income and Marshall Islands tax considerations relating to the securities covered by such prospectus supplement.
33

EXPENSES
The following are the estimated expenses of the issuance and distribution of the securities being registered under the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part, all of which will be paid by us.
Commission registration fee
 
$
60,019
 
FINRA fees
 
$
_______
*
Legal fees and expenses
 
$
_______
*
Accounting fees and expenses
 
$
_______
*
NYSE Supplemental Listing Fee
 
$
_______
*
Miscellaneous
 
$
_______
*
         
Total
 
$
_______
*

* To be provided by a prospectus supplement or as an exhibit to a report on Form 6-K that is incorporated by reference into the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part.

34

SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA
On April 7, 2020, our board of directors effected a one-for-ten reverse stock split of our common shares. On a pre-split basis, we had 72,482,958, 71,217,258 and 74,902,364 common shares outstanding at December 31, 2019, 2018 and 2017, respectively, and on a post-split basis we had 7,248,180, 7,121,726, and 7,490,236 common shares outstanding at December 31, 2019, 2018 and 2017, respectively. The following selected financial data is based on common stock and per share data from our Annual Report on Form 20-F for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2019, filed with the Commission on April 2, 2020, as retrospectively adjusted to reflect the reverse stock split.
   
Year Ended December 31,
 
   
2019
   
2018
   
2017
 
Dollars in thousands, except per share data
                 
Consolidated Statement of Operations Data:
                 
Total vessel revenue
 
$
224,579
   
$
242,502
   
$
162,205
 
Net income (loss)
 
$
44,654
   
$
(12,698
)
 
$
(59,726
)
                         
Basic weighted average shares outstanding
   
6,809
     
7,183
     
7,179
 
Diluted weighted average shares outstanding
   
6,953
     
7,183
     
7,179
 
                         
Basic earnings (loss) per share
 
$
6.56
   
$
(1.77
)
 
$
(8.32
)
Diluted earnings (loss) per share
 
$
6.42
   
$
(1.77
)
 
$
(8.32
)

LEGAL MATTERS
The validity of the securities offered by this prospectus will be passed upon for us by Seward & Kissel LLP, New York, New York, with respect to matters of the law of the Republic of the Marshall Islands and with respect to matters of United States and New York law.
EXPERTS
The financial statements of the Company and management's assessment of the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting (which is included in Management's Report on Internal Control over Financial Reporting) incorporated in this prospectus by reference to the Company's Annual Report on Form 20-F for the year ended December 31, 2019 have been so incorporated in reliance on the report of PricewaterhouseCoopers Audit, an independent registered public accounting firm, given on the authority of said firm as experts in auditing and accounting.
The financial statements of Scorpio Tankers Inc. incorporated in this prospectus by reference to the Company’s Annual Report on Form 20-F for the year ended December 31, 2019 have been so incorporated in reliance on the report of PricewaterhouseCoopers Audit given on the authority of said firm as experts in auditing and accounting.
The industry-related discussions contained in the section "Item 4. Information on the Company—B. Business Overview—Industry and Market Conditions" of the Company's Annual Report on Form 20-F for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2019, which is incorporated herein by reference, have been reviewed by SSY Consultancy & Research Ltd., or SSY, which has confirmed to us that it believes such discussions accurately describe the international drybulk shipping market as of the date thereof.
The statistical and graphical information incorporated by reference into this prospectus has been compiled by SSY from its database and other industry sources. SSY compiles and publishes data for the benefit of its clients. In connection therewith, SSY has advised that (i) certain information in SSY's database is derived from estimates or subjective judgments, (ii) the information in the databases of other maritime data collection agencies may differ from the information in SSY's database and (iii) while SSY has taken reasonable care in the compilation of the statistical and graphical information and believes it to be accurate and correct, data compilation is subject to limited audit and validation procedures.

35

WHERE YOU CAN FIND ADDITIONAL INFORMATION
As required by the Securities Act, we filed a registration statement relating to the securities offered by this prospectus with the Commission. This prospectus is a part of that registration statement, which includes additional information.
Government Filings
We file annual and special reports with the Commission. You may read and copy any document that we file and obtain copies at prescribed rates from the Commission's Public Reference Room at 100 F Street, N.E., Washington, D.C. 20549. You may obtain information on the operation of the Public Reference Room by calling 1 (800) SEC-0330. The Commission maintains a website (http://www.sec.gov) that contains reports, proxy and information statements and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the Commission. Our filings are also available on our website at http://www.scorpiobulkers.com. The information on our website, however, is not, and should not be deemed to be, a part of this prospectus.
Information Incorporated by Reference
The Commission allows us to "incorporate by reference" information that we file with it. This means that we can disclose important information to you by referring you to those filed documents. The information incorporated by reference is considered to be a part of this prospectus, and information that we file later with the Commission prior to the termination of this offering will also be considered to be part of this prospectus and will automatically update and supersede previously filed information, including information contained in this document.
We hereby incorporate by reference the documents listed below and any future filings made with the Commission under Section 13(a), 13(c) or 15(d) of the Exchange Act.

Our Report on Form 6-K filed with the Commission on December 11, 2020 containing our Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations and unaudited interim condensed consolidated financial statements and related notes for the nine months ended September 30, 2020;


Our Annual Report on Form 20-F for the year ended December 31, 2019, filed with the Commission on April 2, 2020, containing our audited consolidated financial statements for the most recent fiscal year for which those statements have been filed; and

The description of our common stock contained in our Registration Statement on Form 8-A, filed with the Commission on December 10, 2013, including any subsequent amendments or reports filed for the purpose of updating such description
We are also incorporating by reference all subsequent Annual Reports on Form 20-F that we file with the Commission and certain reports on Form 6-K that we furnish to the Commission after the date of this prospectus (if they state that they are incorporated by reference into this prospectus) until we file a post-effective amendment indicating that the offering of the securities made by this prospectus has been terminated. In all cases, you should rely on the later information over different information included in this prospectus or the applicable prospectus supplement.
You should rely only on the information contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement. Neither we nor the Selling Shareholders have authorized any other person to provide you with different information. If anyone provides you with different or inconsistent information, you should not rely on it. Neither we nor the Selling Shareholders are making an offer to sell these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted. You should assume that the information appearing in this prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement as well as the information we previously filed with the Commission and incorporated by reference, is accurate as of the dates on the front cover of those documents only. Our business, financial condition and results of operations and prospects may have changed since those dates.
You may request a free copy of the above mentioned filings or any subsequent filing we incorporate by reference to this prospectus by writing or telephoning us at the following address:
Scorpio Bulkers Inc.
9, Boulevard Charles III
MC 98000 Monaco
377 9798 5715

Information Provided by the Company
We will furnish holders of our common shares with annual reports containing audited financial statements and a report by our independent registered public accounting firm. The audited financial statements will be prepared in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles. As a "foreign private issuer," we are exempt from the rules under the Exchange Act prescribing the furnishing and content of proxy statements to shareholders. While we furnish proxy statements to shareholders in accordance with the rules of the NYSE, those proxy statements do not conform to Schedule 14A of the proxy rules promulgated under the Exchange Act. In addition, as a "foreign private issuer," our officers and directors are exempt from the rules under the Exchange Act relating to short swing profit reporting and liability.

36

PART II
INFORMATION NOT REQUIRED IN THE PROSPECTUS
Item 8.  Indemnification of Directors and Officers.

I. Article VIII of the Amended and Restated Bylaws of the Registrant provides as follows:

(1)          Any person who is or was a Director or officer of the Company, or is or was serving at the request of the Company as a director or officer of another partnership, joint venture, trust or other enterprise shall be entitled to be indemnified by the Company upon the same terms, under the same conditions, and to the same extent as authorized by Section 60 of the BCA, if he or she acted in good faith and in a manner he or she reasonably believed to be in or not opposed to the best interests of the Company, and, with respect to any criminal action or proceeding, had no reasonable cause to believe his or her conduct was unlawful. If the BCA is amended hereafter to authorize the further elimination or limitation of the liability of directors, then the liability of a director of the Company shall be eliminated or limited to the fullest extent authorized by the BCA, as so amended. The Company shall have the power to pay in advance expenses a director or officer incurred while defending a civil or criminal proceeding, provided that the director or officer will repay the amount if it shall ultimately be determined that he or she is not entitled to indemnification under this section. Any repeal or modification of this Article VIII shall not adversely affect any rights to indemnification and to the advancement of expenses of a Director or officer of the Company existing at the time of such repeal or modification with respect to any acts or omissions occurring prior to such repeal or modification.

(2)          The Company shall have the power to purchase and maintain insurance on behalf of any person who is or was a Director or officer of the Company or is or was serving at the request of the Company as a director or officer against any liability asserted against such person and incurred by such person in such capacity whether or not the Company would have the power to indemnify such person against such liability by law or under the provisions of these Bylaws.

II. Section 60 of the Associations Law of the Republic of the Marshall Islands provides as follows:

(1)          Actions not by or in right of the corporation.    A corporation shall have power to indemnify any person who was or is a party or is threatened to be made a party to any threatened, pending or completed action, suit or proceeding whether civil, criminal, administrative or investigative (other than an action by or in the right of the corporation) by reason of the fact that he is or was a director or officer of the corporation, or is or was serving at the request of the corporation as a director or officer of another corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust or other enterprise, against expenses (including attorneys' fees), judgments, fines and amounts paid in settlement actually and reasonably incurred by him in connection with such action, suit or proceeding if he acted in good faith and in a manner he reasonably believed to be in or not opposed to the best interests of the corporation, and, with respect to any criminal action or proceeding, had no reasonable cause to believe his conduct was unlawful. The termination of any action, suit or proceeding by judgment, order, settlement, conviction, or upon a plea of no contest, or its equivalent, shall not, of itself, create a presumption that the person did not act in good faith and in a manner which he reasonably believed to be in or not opposed to the best interests of the corporation, and, with respect to any criminal action or proceedings, had reasonable cause to believe that his conduct was unlawful.

(2)          Actions by or in right of the corporation.    A corporation shall have the power to indemnify any person who was or is a party or is threatened to be made a party to any threatened, pending or completed action or suit by or in the right of the corporation to procure a judgment in its favor by reason of the fact that he is or was a director or officer of the corporation, or is or was serving at the request of the corporation, or is or was serving at the request of the corporation as a director or officer of another corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust or other enterprise against expenses (including attorneys' fees) actually and reasonably incurred by him or in connection with the defense or settlement of such action or suit if he acted in good faith and in a manner he reasonably believed to be in or not, opposed to the best interests of the corporation and except that no indemnification shall be made in respect of any claims, issue or matter as to which such person shall have been adjudged to be liable for negligence or misconduct in the performance of his duty to the corporation unless and only to the extent that the court in which such action or suit was brought shall determine upon application that, despite the adjudication of liability but in view of all the circumstances of the case, such person is fairly and reasonably entitled to indemnity for such expenses which the court shall deem proper.

II-1

(3)          When director or officer successful.    To the extent that a director or officer of a corporation has been successful on the merits or otherwise in defense of any action, suit or proceeding referred to in subsections (1) or (2) of this section, or in the defense of a claim, issue or matter therein, he shall be indemnified against expenses (including attorneys' fees) actually and reasonably incurred by him in connection therewith.

(4)          Payment of expenses in advance.    Expenses incurred in defending a civil or criminal action, suit or proceeding may be paid in advance of the final disposition of such action, suit or proceeding as authorized by the board of directors in the specific case upon receipt of an undertaking by or on behalf of the director or officer to repay such amount if it shall ultimately be determined that he is not entitled to be indemnified by the corporation as authorized in this section.

(5)          Indemnification pursuant to other rights.    The indemnification and advancement of expenses provided by, or granted pursuant to, the other subsections of this section shall not be deemed exclusive of any other rights to which those seeking indemnification or advancement of expenses may be entitled under any bylaw, agreement, vote of shareholders or disinterested directors or otherwise, both as to action in his official capacity and as to action in another capacity while holding such office.

(6)          Continuation of indemnification.    The indemnification and advancement of expenses provided by, or granted pursuant to, this section shall, unless otherwise provided when authorized or ratified, continue as to a person who has ceased to be a director, officer, employee or agent and shall inure to the benefit of the heirs, executors and administrators of such a person.

(7)          Insurance.    A corporation shall have the power to purchase and maintain insurance on behalf of any person who is or was a director or officer of the corporation or is or was serving at the request of the corporation as a director or officer against any liability asserted against him and incurred by him in such capacity whether or not the corporation would have the power to indemnify him against such liability under the provisions of this section.

Item 9. Exhibits

A list of exhibits included as part of this registration statement is set forth in the Exhibit Index which immediately precedes such exhibits and is incorporated herein by reference.

Item 10. Undertakings.

The undersigned registrant hereby undertakes:

 
(a)
Under Rule 415 of the Securities Act,

 
(1)
To file, during any period in which offers or sales are being made, a post-effective amendment to this registration statement unless the information required to be included in a post-effective amendment by those paragraphs is contained in reports filed with or furnished to the Commission by the registrant pursuant to section 13 or section 15(d) of the Exchange Act of 1934 that are incorporated by reference in the registration statement, or is contained in a form of a prospectus filed pursuant to Rule 424(b) that is part of the registration statement;

 
(i)
To include any prospectus required by Section 10(a)(3) of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended;

 
(ii)
To reflect in the prospectus any facts or events arising after the effective date of the registration statement (or the most recent post-effective amendment thereof) which, individually or in the aggregate, represent a fundamental change in the information set forth in the registration statement.  Notwithstanding the foregoing, any increase or decrease in volume of securities offered (if the total dollar value of securities offered would not exceed that which was registered) and any deviation from the low or high end of the estimated maximum offering range may be reflected in the form of prospectus filed with the Commission pursuant to Rule 424(b) if, in the aggregate, the changes in volume and price represent no more than a 20 percent change in the maximum aggregate offering price set forth in the "Calculation of Registration Fee" table in the effective registration statement.

II-2


 
(iii)
To include any material information with respect to the plan of distribution not previously disclosed in the registration statement or any material change to such information in the registration statement.

 
(2)
That, for the purpose of determining any liability under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, each such post-effective amendment shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.

 
(3)
To remove from registration by means of a post-effective amendment any of the securities being registered which remain unsold at the termination of the offering.

 
(4)
To file a post-effective amendment to the registration statement to include any financial statements required by Item 8.A. of Form 20-F at the start of any delayed offering or throughout a continuous offering.  Financial statements and information otherwise required by Section 10(a)(3) of the Act need not be furnished, provided, that the registrant includes in the prospectus, by means of a post-effective amendment, financial statements required pursuant to this paragraph (a)(4) and other information necessary to ensure that all other information in the prospectus is at least as current as the date of those financial statements.  Notwithstanding the foregoing, with respect to registration statements on Form F-3, a post-effective amendment need not be filed to include financial statements and information required by Section 10(a)(3) of the Securities Act of 1933 or Rule 3-19 under the Securities Act of 1933 if such financial statements and information are contained in periodic reports filed with or furnished to the Commission by the registrant pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 that are incorporated by reference in the Form F-3.

 
(5)
That, for the purpose of determining liability under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, to any purchaser;

 
(i)
Each prospectus filed by the registrant pursuant to Rule 424(b)(3) shall be deemed to be part of this Registration Statement as of the date the filed prospectus was deemed part of and included in this Registration Statement; and

 
(ii)
Each prospectus required to be filed pursuant to Rule 424(b)(2), (b)(5), or (b)(7) as part of a registration statement in reliance on Rule 430B relating to an offering made pursuant to Rule 415(a)(1)(i), (vii), or (x) for the purpose of providing the information required by section 10(a) of the Securities Act of 1933 shall be deemed to be part of and included in the registration statement as of the earlier of the date such form of prospectus is first used after effectiveness or the date of the first contract of sale of securities in the offering described in the prospectus. As provided in Rule 430B, for liability purposes of the issuer and any person that is at that date an underwriter, such date shall be deemed to be a new effective date of the registration statement relating to the securities in the registration statement to which that prospectus relates, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof. Provided, however, that no statement made in a registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement or made in a document incorporated or deemed incorporated by reference into the registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement will, as to a purchaser with a time of contract of sale prior to such effective date, supersede or modify any statement that was made in the registration statement or prospectus that was part of the registration statement or made in any such document immediately prior to such effective date.

II-3


 
(6)
That, for the purpose of determining liability under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, to any purchaser in the initial distribution of the securities, the undersigned registrant undertakes that in a primary offering of securities of the undersigned registrant pursuant to this Registration Statement, regardless of the underwriting method used to sell the securities to the purchaser, if the securities are offered or sold to such purchaser by means of any of the following communications, the undersigned registrant will be a seller to the purchaser and will be considered to offer or sell such securities to such purchaser:

 
(i)
Any preliminary prospectus or prospectus of the undersigned registrant relating to the offering required to be filed pursuant to Rule 424;

 
(ii)
Any free writing prospectus relating to the offering prepared by or on behalf of the undersigned registrant or used or referred to by the undersigned registrant;

 
(iii)
The portion of any other free writing prospectus relating to the offering containing material information about the undersigned registrant or its securities provided by or on behalf of the undersigned registrant; and

 
(iv)
Any other communication that is an offer in the offering made by the undersigned registrant to the purchaser.

 
(b)
The undersigned registrant hereby undertakes that, for purposes of determining any liability under the Securities Act of 1933, each filing of the registrant's annual report pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (and, where applicable, each filing of an employee benefit plan's annual report pursuant to Section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934) that is incorporated by reference in the registration statement shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.

 
(c) – (g)
Not applicable.
 
 
(h)
Insofar as indemnification for liabilities arising under the Securities Act of 1933 may be permitted to directors, officers and controlling persons of the registrant pursuant to the foregoing provisions, or otherwise, the registrant has been advised that in the opinion of the Securities and Exchange Commission such indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Act and is, therefore, unenforceable. In the event that a claim for indemnification against such liabilities (other than the payment by the registrant of expenses incurred or paid by a director, officer or controlling person of the registrant in the successful defense of any action, suit or proceeding) is asserted by such director, officer or controlling person in connection with the securities being registered, the registrant will, unless in the opinion of its counsel the matter has been settled by controlling precedent, submit to a court of appropriate jurisdiction the question whether such indemnification by it is against public policy as expressed in the Act and will be governed by the final adjudication of such issue.

 
(i)
Not applicable.

 
(j)
The undersigned registrant hereby undertakes to file an application for the purpose of determining the eligibility of the trustee to act under subsection (a) of Section 310 of the Trust Indenture Act in accordance with the rules and regulations prescribed by the Commission under Section 305(b)(2) of the Trust Indenture Act.

 
(k)
Not applicable.

II-4

SIGNATURES

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, the Registrant certifies that it has reasonable grounds to believe that it meets all of the requirements for filing on Form F-3 and has duly caused this Registration Statement to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned, thereunto duly authorized, in the City of Fairfield, State of Connecticut, on December 11, 2020.

 
Scorpio Bulkers Inc.
(Registrant)
 
 
By: /s/ Hugh Baker
 
Name: Hugh Baker
Title: Chief Financial Officer
 

POWER OF ATTORNEY

KNOW ALL MEN BY THESE PRESENTS, that each person whose signature appears below constitutes and appoints Lawrence Rutkowski, Edward S. Horton, and Filana R. Silberberg, or any of them, his or her true and lawful attorney-in-fact and agent, with full powers of substitution and resubstitution, for him or her and in his or her name, place and stead, in any and all capacities, to sign any or all amendments (including post-effective amendments) to this registration statement, and to file the same, with all exhibits thereto, and other documents in connection therewith, with the Securities and Exchange Commission, granting unto said attorney-in-fact and agent full power and authority to do and perform each and every act and thing requisite and necessary to be done, as fully for all intents and purposes as he or she might or could do in person, hereby ratifying and confirming all that said attorney-in-fact and agent, or his or her substitute, may lawfully do or cause to be done by virtue thereof.
Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, this registration statement has been signed by the following persons in the capacities indicated on December 11, 2020.

       
Signature
 
Title
 
       
       
 /s/ Emanuele A. Lauro
 
 Chief Executive Officer,
 
Emanuele A. Lauro
 
Chairman and Director
(Principal Executive Officer)
 
       
       
 /s/ Robert Bugbee
 
 President and Director
 
Robert Bugbee
     
       
       
 /s/ Hugh Baker
 
 Chief Financial Officer
 
Hugh Baker
 
(Principal Financial Officer and Principal Accounting Officer)
 
       
       
       
/s/ Roberto Giorgi
 
Director
 Roberto Giorgi
   
     
     
     
/s/ Einar Michael Steimler
 
Director
 Einar Michael Steimler
   
     
     
     
/s/ Christian M. Gut
 
Director
 Christian M. Gut
   
     
     
     
/s/ Thomas Ostrander
 
Director
 Thomas Ostrander
   
     
     
     
/s/ James B. Nish
 
Director
 James B. Nish
   
     
     
     
/s/ Berit Ledel Henriksen
 
Director
Berit Ledel Henriksen
   
     
     


AUTHORIZED UNITED STATES REPRESENTATIVE
Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, the undersigned, the duly authorized representative of the Registrant in the United States, has signed this registration statement in the City of Fairfield, State of Connecticut, on December 11, 2020.

   
SCORPIO SALT LLC
   
By:
/s/ Hugh Baker
Name:
Hugh Baker
Title:
Authorized Person


Exhibit Index
   
Number
Description
   
1.1
Form of Underwriting Agreement*
   
4.1
   
4.2
   Form of Preferred Share Certificate*
   
4.3
   
4.4
   
4.5
Form of Warrant Agreement*
   
4.6
Form of Purchase Contract*
   
4.7
Form of Rights Agreement*
   
4.8
Form of Unit Agreement*
   
5.1
   
8.1
   
23.1
   
23.2
   
23.3
   
23.4
Consent of Seward & Kissel LLP (included in Exhibit 5.1 and Exhibit 8.1)
   
24.1
   
25.1
Form of T-1 Statement of Eligibility (senior debt securities indenture)**
   
25.2
Form of T-1 Statement of Eligibility (subordinated debt securities indenture)**
__________________
 
(1)
Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 4.1 to the Registrant's report on Form 6-K, filed with the Commission on April 7, 2020.
 
*
To be filed either as an amendment to this Registration Statement or as an exhibit to a report of the Registrant filed pursuant to the Exchange Act and incorporated by reference into this Registration Statement.
  **
To be filed in accordance with Section 305(b)(2) of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended.




Exhibit 4.3


 

 

 
 
SCORPIO BULKERS INC.

FORM OF

SENIOR INDENTURE

Dated as of [           ], 20[ ]




[         ]

Trustee



 





     



TABLE OF CONTENTS
PAGE
 

ARTICLE I DEFINITIONS AND INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE
1

SECTION 1.01.
Definitions.
1
SECTION 1.02.
Other Definitions.
5
SECTION 1.03.
Incorporation by Reference of Trust Indenture Act.
5
SECTION 1.04.
Rules of Construction.
6

ARTICLE II THE SECURITIES
6

SECTION 2.01.
Issuable in Series.
6
SECTION 2.02.
Establishment of Terms of Series of Securities.
7
SECTION 2.03.
Execution and Authentication.
9
SECTION 2.04.
Registrar and Paying Agent.
10
SECTION 2.05.
Paying Agent to Hold Money in Trust.
10
SECTION 2.06.
Securityholder Lists.
11
SECTION 2.07.
Transfer and Exchange.
11
SECTION 2.08.
Mutilated, Destroyed, Lost and Stolen Securities.
12
SECTION 2.09.
Outstanding Securities.
12
SECTION 2.10.
Treasury Securities.
13
SECTION 2.11.
Temporary Securities.
13
SECTION 2.12.
Cancellation.
13
SECTION 2.13.
Defaulted Interest.
14
SECTION 2.14.
Global Securities.
14
SECTION 2.15.
CUSIP Numbers.
16

ARTICLE III REDEMPTION
16

SECTION 3.01.
Notice to Trustee.
16
SECTION 3.02.
Selection of Securities to be Redeemed.
16
SECTION 3.03.
Notice of Redemption.
17
SECTION 3.04.
Effect of Notice of Redemption.
17
SECTION 3.05.
Deposit of Redemption Price.
18
SECTION 3.06.
Securities Redeemed in Part.
18
 

 


ARTICLE IV COVENANTS
18

SECTION 4.01.
Payment of Principal and Interest.
18
SECTION 4.02.
SEC Reports.
18
SECTION 4.03.
Compliance Certificate.
19
SECTION 4.04.
Stay, Extension and Usury Laws.
20
SECTION 4.05.
Corporate Existence.
20
SECTION 4.06.
Taxes.
20
SECTION 4.07.
Additional Interest Notice.
20
SECTION 4.08.
Further Instruments and Acts.
20

ARTICLE V SUCCESSORS
21

SECTION 5.01.
When Company May Merge, Etc.
21
SECTION 5.02.
Successor Corporation Substituted.
21

ARTICLE VI DEFAULTS AND REMEDIES
21

SECTION 6.01.
Events of Default.
21
SECTION 6.02.
Acceleration of Maturity; Rescission and Annulment.
23
SECTION 6.03.
Collection of Indebtedness and Suits for Enforcement by Trustee.
25
SECTION 6.04.
Trustee May File Proofs of Claim.
25
SECTION 6.05.
Trustee May Enforce Claims Without Possession of Securities.
26
SECTION 6.06.
Application of Money Collected.
26
SECTION 6.07.
Limitation on Suits.
26
SECTION 6.08.
Unconditional Right of Holders to Receive Principal and Interest.
27
SECTION 6.09.
Restoration of Rights and Remedies.
27
SECTION 6.10.
Rights and Remedies Cumulative.
27
SECTION 6.11.
Delay or Omission Not Waiver.
27
SECTION 6.12.
Control by Holders.
28
SECTION 6.13.
Waiver of Past Defaults.
28
SECTION 6.14.
Undertaking for Costs.
28

ARTICLE VII TRUSTEE
29

SECTION 7.01.
Duties of Trustee.
29
SECTION 7.02.
Rights of Trustee.
30

 






SECTION 7.03.
Individual Rights of Trustee.
31
SECTION 7.04.
Trustee's Disclaimer.
31
SECTION 7.05.
Notice of Defaults.
31
SECTION 7.06.
Reports by Trustee to Holders.
31
SECTION 7.07.
Compensation and Indemnity.
32
SECTION 7.08.
Replacement of Trustee.
32
SECTION 7.09.
Successor Trustee by Merger, etc.
33
SECTION 7.10.
Eligibility; Disqualification.
33
SECTION 7.11.
Preferential Collection of Claims Against Company.
34

ARTICLE VIII SATISFACTION AND DISCHARGE; DEFEASANCE
34

SECTION 8.01.
Satisfaction and Discharge of Indenture.
34
SECTION 8.02.
Application of Trust Funds; Indemnification.
35
SECTION 8.03.
Legal Defeasance of Securities of any Series.
36
SECTION 8.04.
Covenant Defeasance.
37
SECTION 8.05.
Repayment to Company.
38

ARTICLE IX AMENDMENTS AND WAIVERS
38

SECTION 9.01.
Without Consent of Holders.
38
SECTION 9.02.
With Consent of Holders.
39
SECTION 9.03.
Limitations.
40
SECTION 9.04.
Compliance with Trust Indenture Act.
40
SECTION 9.05.
Revocation and Effect of Consents.
41
SECTION 9.06.
Notation on or Exchange of Securities.
41
SECTION 9.07.
Trustee Protected.
41
SECTION 9.08.
Effect of Supplemental Indenture.
41

ARTICLE X MISCELLANEOUS
42

SECTION 10.01.
Trust Indenture Act Controls.
42
SECTION 10.02.
Notices.
42
SECTION 10.03.
Communication by Holders with Other Holders.
43
SECTION 10.04.
Certificate and Opinion as to Conditions Precedent.
43
SECTION 10.05.
Statements Required in Certificate or Opinion.
43
 

 




 


SECTION 10.06.
Record Date for Vote or Consent of Holders.
44
SECTION 10.07.
Rules by Trustee and Agents.
44
SECTION 10.08.
Legal Holidays.
44
SECTION 10.09.
No Recourse Against Others.
44
SECTION 10.10.
Counterparts.
44
SECTION 10.11.
Governing Laws and Submission to Jurisdiction.
45
SECTION 10.12.
No Adverse Interpretation of Other Agreements.
45
SECTION 10.13.
Successors.
45
SECTION 10.14.
Severability.
45
SECTION 10.15.
Table of Contents, Headings, Etc.
45
SECTION 10.16.
Securities in a Foreign Currency or in ECU.
46
SECTION 10.17.
Judgment Currency.
46
SECTION 10.18.
Compliance with Applicable Anti-Terrorism and Money Laundering Regulations.
47

ARTICLE XI SINKING FUNDS
47

SECTION 11.01.
Applicability of Article.
47
SECTION 11.02.
Satisfaction of Sinking Fund Payments with Securities.
48
SECTION 11.03.
Redemption of Securities for Sinking Fund.
48








Reconciliation and tie between Trust Indenture Act of 1939 and Indenture,
Dated as of [          ], 20[ ]
 
Section 310(a)(1)
7.10
(a)(2)
7.10
(a)(3)
Not Applicable
(a)(4)
Not Applicable
(a)(5)
7.10
(b)
7.10
(c)
Not Applicable
Section 311(a)
7.11
(b)
7.11
(c)
Not Applicable
Section 312(a)
2.06
(b)
10.03
(c)
10.03
Section 313(a)
7.06
(b)(1)
7.06
(b)(2)
7.06
(c)(1)
7.06
(d)
7.06
Section 314(a)
4.02, 10.05
(b)
Not Applicable
(c)(1)
10.04
(c)(2)
10.04
(c)(3)
Not Applicable
(d)
Not Applicable
(e)
10.05
(f)
Not Applicable
Section 315(a)
7.01
(b)
7.05
(c)
7.01
(d)
7.01
(e)
6.14
Section 316(a)(1)(A)
6.12
(a)(1)(B)
6.13
(a)(2)
Not Applicable
(b)
6.13
(c)
10.06
Section 317(a)(1)
6.03
(a)(2)
6.04
(b)
2.05
Section 318(a)
10.01
 
Note:  This reconciliation and tie shall not, for any purpose, be deemed to be part of the Indenture.
     



Indenture dated as of [          ], 20[ ] between Scorpio Bulkers Inc., a company organized under the laws of the Republic of the Marshall Islands (the "Company") and [          ] (the "Trustee").
 
Each party agrees as follows for the benefit of the other party and for the equal and ratable benefit of the Holders of the Securities issued under this Indenture.
 
ARTICLE I

DEFINITIONS AND INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE
 
SECTION 1.01.          Definitions.
 
"Additional Amounts" means any additional amounts which are required hereby or by any Security, under circumstances specified herein or therein, to be paid by the Company in respect of certain taxes imposed on Holders specified therein and which are owing to such Holders.
 
"Affiliate" of any specified person means any other person directly or indirectly controlling or controlled by or under direct or indirect common control with such specified person.  For the purposes of this definition, "control" (including, with correlative meanings, the terms "controlled by" and "under common control with"), as used with respect to any person, shall mean the possession, directly or indirectly, of the power to direct or cause the direction of the management or policies of such person, whether through the ownership of voting securities or by agreement or otherwise.
 
"Agent" means any Registrar or Paying Agent.
 
"Bankruptcy Law" means Title 11 of the United States Code (or any successor thereto) or any similar federal or state law for the relief of debtors.
 
"Board of Directors" means the board of directors of the Company or any duly authorized committee thereof.
 
"Board Resolution" means a copy of a resolution certified by the Secretary or an Assistant Secretary of the Company to have been adopted by the Board of Directors or pursuant to authorization by the Board of Directors and to be in full force and effect on the date of the certificate and delivered to the Trustee.
 
"Business Day" means any day other than a (x) Saturday, (y) Sunday or (z) day on which state or federally chartered banking institutions in New York, New York are not required to be open.
 
"Capital Stock" of any Person means any and all shares, interests, rights to purchase, warrants, options, participations or other equivalents of or interests in (however designated) equity of such Person, but excluding any debt securities convertible into such equity.
 

1


 
"Certificated Securities" means Securities in the form of physical, certificated Securities in registered form.
 
"Company" means the party named as such above until a successor replaces it in accordance with the terms of this Indenture and thereafter means the successor.
 
"Company Order" means a written order signed in the name of the Company by two Officers, one of whom must be the Company's principal executive officer, principal financial officer or principal accounting officer.
 
"Company Request" means a written request signed in the name of the Company by its Chairman of the Board, a President or a Vice President, and by its Chief Financial Officer, its Secretary or an Assistant Secretary, and delivered to the Trustee.
 
"Corporate Trust Office" means the office of the Trustee at which at any particular time its corporate trust business shall be principally administered which office at the date of the execution of this Indenture is [          ], Attention: [          ], or at such other address as the Trustee may designate from time to time.
 
"Custodian" means any receiver, trustee, assignee, liquidator, sequestrator or similar official under any Bankruptcy Law.
 
"Default" or "default" means any event which is, or after notice or passage of time or both would be, an Event of Default.
 
"Default Rate" means the default rate of interest specified in the Securities.
 
"Depository" means, with respect to the Securities of any Series issuable or issued in whole or in part in the form of one or more Global Securities, the person designated as Depository for such Series by the Company, which Depository shall be a clearing agency registered under the Exchange Act; and if at any time there is more than one such person, "Depository" as used with respect to the Securities of any Series shall mean the Depository with respect to the Securities of such Series.
 
"Discount Security" means any Security that provides for an amount less than the stated principal amount thereof to be due and payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof pursuant to Section 6.02.
 
"Dollars" means the currency of The United States of America.
 
"ECU" means the European Currency Unit as determined by the Commission of the European Union.
 
"Exchange Act" means the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended.
 
"Foreign Currency" means any currency or currency unit issued by a government other than the government of The United States of America.
 

2


 
"Foreign Government Obligations" means with respect to Securities of any Series that are denominated in a Foreign Currency, (i) direct obligations of the government that issued or caused to be issued such currency for the payment of which obligations its full faith and credit is pledged or (ii) obligations of a person controlled or supervised by or acting as an agency or instrumentality of such government the timely payment of which is unconditionally guaranteed as a full faith and credit obligation by such government, which, in either case under clauses (i) or (ii), are not callable or redeemable at the option of the issuer thereof.
 
"Global Security" or "Global Securities" means a Security or Securities, as the case may be, in the form established pursuant to Section 2.02 evidencing all or part of a Series of Securities, issued to the Depository for such Series or its nominee, and registered in the name of such Depository or nominee.
 
"Holder" or "Securityholder" means a person in whose name a Security is registered.
 
"Indenture" means this Indenture as amended and supplemented from time to time and shall include the form and terms of particular Series of Securities established as contemplated hereunder.
 
"Interest," in respect of the Securities, unless the context otherwise requires, refers to interest payable on the Securities, including any additional interest that may become payable pursuant to Section 6.02(b).
 
"Maturity," when used with respect to any Security or installment of principal thereof, means the date on which the principal of such Security or such installment of principal becomes due and payable as therein or herein provided, whether at the Stated Maturity or by declaration of acceleration, call for redemption, notice of option to elect repayment or otherwise.
 
"Officer" means the Chairman of the Board, the President, any Vice-President, the Treasurer, the Secretary, any Assistant Treasurer or any Assistant Secretary of the Company.
 
"Officers' Certificate" means a certificate signed by two Officers, one of whom must be the Company's principal executive officer, principal financial officer or principal accounting officer.
 
"Opinion of Counsel" means a written opinion of legal counsel who is, and which opinion is, acceptable to the Trustee and its counsel.  Such legal counsel may be an employee of or counsel to the Company or the Trustee.
 
"Person" means any individual, corporation, partnership, joint venture, association, limited liability company, joint-stock company, trust, unincorporated organization or government or any agency or political subdivision thereof.
 
"Principal" or "principal" of a Security means the principal of the Security plus, when appropriate, the premium, if any, on, and any Additional Amounts in respect of, the Security.
 
 

3


 
"Responsible Officer" means any officer of the Trustee in its Corporate Trust Office and also means, any vice president, managing director, director, associate, assistant vice president, or any other officer of the Trustee customarily performing functions similar to those performed by any of the above designated officers and also, with respect to a particular corporate trust matter, any other officer to whom any corporate trust matter is referred because of his or her knowledge of and familiarity with a particular subject.
 
"SEC" means the Securities and Exchange Commission.
 
"Security" or "Securities" means the debentures, notes or other debt instruments of the Company of any Series authenticated and delivered under this Indenture.
 
"Series" or "Series of Securities" means each series of debentures, notes or other debt instruments of the Company created pursuant to Sections 2.01 and 2.02 hereof.
 
"Stated Maturity" when used with respect to any Security or any installment of principal thereof or interest thereon, means the date specified in such Security as the fixed date on which the principal of such Security or such installment of principal or interest is due and payable.
 
"Subordinated Indebtedness" means any indebtedness which is expressly subordinated to the indebtedness evidenced by Securities.
 
"Subsidiary" means, in respect of any Person, any corporation, association, partnership or other business entity of which more than 50% of the total voting power of shares of Capital Stock or other interests (including partnership interests) entitled (without regard to the occurrence of any contingency) to vote in the election of directors, managers, general partners or trustees thereof is at the time owned or controlled, directly or indirectly, by (i) such Person; (ii) such Person and one or more Subsidiaries of such Person; or (iii) one or more Subsidiaries of such Person.
 
"TIA" means the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 (15 U.S. Code Sections 77aaa-77bbbb) as in effect on the date of this Indenture; provided, however, that in the event the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 is amended after such date, "TIA" means, to the extent required by any such amendment, the Trust Indenture Act as so amended.
 
"Trustee" means the person named as the "Trustee" in the first paragraph of this instrument until a successor Trustee shall have become such pursuant to the applicable provisions of this Indenture, and thereafter "Trustee" shall mean or include each person who is then a Trustee hereunder, and if at any time there is more than one such person, "Trustee" as used with respect to the Securities of any Series shall mean the Trustee with respect to Securities of that Series.
 
 

4


 
"U.S. Government Obligations" means securities which are (i) direct obligations of The United States of America for the payment of which its full faith and credit is pledged or (ii) obligations of a person controlled or supervised by and acting as an agency or instrumentality of The United States of America the payment of which is unconditionally guaranteed as a full faith and credit obligation by The United States of America, and which in the case of (i) and (ii) are not callable or redeemable at the option of the issuer thereof, and shall also include a depository receipt issued by a bank or trust company as custodian with respect to any such U.S. Government Obligation or a specific payment of interest on or principal of any such U.S. Government Obligation held by such custodian for the account of the holder of a depository receipt, provided that (except as required by law) such custodian is not authorized to make any deduction from the amount payable to the holder of such depository receipt from any amount received by the custodian in respect of the U.S. Government Obligation evidenced by such depository receipt.
 
SECTION 1.02.          Other Definitions.
 
 
 
TERM
 
DEFINED IN SECTION
 
 
"Applicable Law"
10.18
 
 
"Event of Default"
6.01
 
 
"Instrument"
6.01
 
 
"Journal"
10.16
 
 
"Judgment Currency"
10.17
 
 
"Legal Holiday"
10.08
 
 
"mandatory sinking fund payment"
11.01
 
 
"Market Exchange Rate"
10.16
 
 
"New York Banking Day"
10.17
 
 
"optional sinking fund payment"
11.01
 
 
"Paying Agent"
2.04
 
 
"Registrar"
2.04
 
 
"Required Currency"
10.17
 
 
"successor person"
5.01
 
 
"Temporary Securities"
2.11
 
 
SECTION 1.03.          Incorporation by Reference of Trust Indenture Act.
 
Whenever this Indenture refers to a provision of the TIA, the provision is incorporated by reference in and made a part of this Indenture.  This Indenture shall also include those provisions of the TIA required to be included herein by the provisions of the Trust Indenture Reform Act of 1990.  The following TIA terms used in this Indenture have the following meanings:
 
"indenture securities" means the Securities.
 
"indenture security holder" means a Securityholder.
 
"indenture to be qualified" means this Indenture.
 
"indenture trustee" or "institutional trustee" means the Trustee.
 
"obligor" on the indenture securities means the Company and any successor obligor upon the Securities.
 
 

5


 
All other terms used in this Indenture that are defined by the TIA, defined by TIA reference to another statute or defined by SEC rule under the TIA and not otherwise defined herein are used herein as so defined.
 
SECTION 1.04.          Rules of Construction.
 
Unless the context otherwise requires:
 
(a)          a term has the meaning assigned to it;
 
(b)          an accounting term not otherwise defined has the meaning assigned to it in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles;
 
(c)          references to "generally accepted accounting principles" shall mean generally accepted accounting principles in effect as of the time when and for the period as to which such accounting principles are to be applied;
 
(d)          "or" is not exclusive;
 
(e)          words in the singular include the plural, and in the plural include the singular;
 
(f)          provisions apply to successive events and transactions;
 
(g)          references to agreements and other instruments include subsequent amendments thereto;
 
(h)          the term "merger" includes a statutory share exchange, and the term "merged" has a correlative meaning; and
 
(i)          "herein," "hereof" and other words of similar import refer to this Indenture as a whole and not to any particular Article, Section or other subdivision.
 
ARTICLE II

THE SECURITIES
 
SECTION 2.01.          Issuable in Series.
 
The aggregate principal amount of Securities that may be authenticated and delivered under this Indenture is unlimited.  The Securities may be issued in one or more Series.  All Securities of a Series shall be identical except as may be set forth in a Board Resolution, a supplemental indenture or an Officers' Certificate detailing the adoption of the terms thereof pursuant to the authority granted under a Board Resolution.  In the case of Securities of a Series to be issued from time to time, the Board Resolution, Officers' Certificate or supplemental indenture may provide for the method by which specified terms (such as interest rate, maturity date, record date or date from which interest shall accrue) are to be determined.  Securities may differ between Series in respect of any matters, provided that all Series of Securities shall be equally and ratably entitled to the benefits of the Indenture.

 
 

6


 
SECTION 2.02.          Establishment of Terms of Series of Securities.
 
At or prior to the issuance of any Securities within a Series, the following shall be established (as to the Series generally, in the case of Subsection (a), and either as to such Securities within the Series or as to the Series generally in the case of Subsections (b) through (t) by a Board Resolution, a supplemental indenture or an Officers' Certificate pursuant to authority granted under a Board Resolution:
 
(a)          the title, designation, aggregate principal amount and authorized denominations of the Securities of the Series;
 
(b)          the price or prices, (expressed as a percentage of the aggregate principal amount thereof) at which the Securities of the Series will be issued;
 
(c)          the date or dates on which the principal of the Securities of the Series is payable;
 
(d)          the rate or rates (which may be fixed or variable) per annum or, if applicable, the method used to determine such rate or rates (including, but not limited to, any commodity, commodity index, stock exchange index or financial index) at which the Securities of the Series shall bear interest, if any, the date or dates from which such interest, if any, shall commence and be payable and any regular record date for the interest payable on any interest payment date;
 
(e)          any optional or mandatory sinking fund provisions or conversion or exchangeability provisions upon which Securities of the Series shall be redeemed, purchased, converted or exchanged;
 
(f)          the date, if any, after which and the price or prices at which the Securities of the Series may be optionally redeemed or must be mandatorily redeemed and any other terms and provisions of optional or mandatory provisions;
 
(g)          if other than denominations of $1,000 and any integral multiple thereof, the denominations in which the Securities of the Series shall be issuable;
 
(h)          if other than the full principal amount, the portion of the principal amount of the Securities of the Series that shall be payable upon declaration of acceleration pursuant to Section 6.02 or provable in bankruptcy;
 
(i)          any addition to or change in the Events of Default which applies to any Securities of the Series and any change in the right of the Trustee or the requisite Holders of such Securities to declare the principal amount thereof due and payable pursuant to Section 6.02;
 
 
 

7


 
(j)          the currency or currencies, including composite currencies, in which payments of principal of, premium or interest, if any, on the Securities of the Series will be payable, if other than the currency of the United States of America;
 
(k)          if payments of principal of, premium or interest, if any, on the Securities of the Series will be payable, at the Company's election or at the election of any Holder, in a currency other than that in which the Securities of the Series are stated to be payable, the period or periods within which, and the terms and conditions upon which, the election may be made;
 
(l)          if payments of interest, if any, on the Securities of the Series will be payable, at the Company's election or at the election of any Holder, in cash or additional securities, and the terms and conditions upon which the election may be made;
 
(m)          if denominated in a currency or currencies other than the currency of the United States of America, the equivalent price of the Securities of the Series in the currency of the United States of America for purposes of determining the voting rights of Holders of the Securities of the Series;
 
(n)          if the amount of payments of principal, premium or interest may be determined with reference to an index, formula or other method based on a coin or currency other than that in which the Securities of the Series are stated to be payable, the manner in which the amounts will be determined;
 
(o)          any restrictive covenants or other material terms relating to the Securities of the Series;
 
(p)          whether the Securities of the Series will be issued in the form of global securities or certificates in registered form;
 
(q)          any terms with respect to subordination;
 
(r)          any listing on any securities exchange or quotation system;
 
(s)          additional provisions, if any, related to defeasance and discharge of the offered debt securities; and
 
(t)          the applicability of any guarantees, which would be governed by New York law.
 
All Securities of any one Series need not be issued at the same time and may be issued from time to time, consistent with the terms of this Indenture, if so provided by or pursuant to the Board Resolution, supplemental indenture or Officers' Certificate referred to above, and the authorized principal amount of any Series may not be increased to provide for issuance of additional Securities of such Series, unless otherwise provided in such Board Resolution, supplemental Indenture or Officers' Certificate.
 
 

8


 
SECTION 2.03.          Execution and Authentication.
 
Two Officers shall sign the Securities for the Company by manual or facsimile signature.
 
If an Officer whose signature is on a Security no longer holds that office at the time the Security is authenticated, the Security shall nevertheless be valid.
 
A Security shall not be valid until authenticated by the manual signature of the Trustee or an authenticating agent.  The signature shall be conclusive evidence that the Security has been authenticated under this Indenture.
 
The Trustee shall at any time, and from time to time, authenticate Securities for original issue in the principal amount provided in the Board Resolution, supplemental indenture hereto or Officers' Certificate, upon receipt by the Trustee of a Company Order.  Such Company Order may authorize authentication and delivery pursuant to oral or electronic instructions from the Company or its duly authorized agent or agents, which oral instructions shall be promptly confirmed in writing.  Each Security shall be dated the date of its authentication unless otherwise provided by a Board Resolution, a supplemental indenture hereto or an Officers' Certificate.
 
The aggregate principal amount of Securities of any Series outstanding at any time may not exceed any limit upon the maximum principal amount for such Series set forth in the Board Resolution, supplemental indenture hereto or Officers' Certificate delivered pursuant to Section 2.02, except as provided in Section 2.08.
 
Prior to the issuance of Securities of any Series, the Trustee shall have received and (subject to Section 7.02) shall be fully protected in relying on: (a) the Board Resolution, supplemental indenture hereto or Officers Certificate establishing the form of the Securities of that Series or of Securities within that Series and the terms of the Securities of that Series or of Securities within that Series, (b) an Officers' Certificate complying with Section 10.04, and (c) an Opinion of Counsel complying with Section 10.04.
 
The Trustee shall have the right to decline to authenticate and deliver any Securities of such Series: (a) if the Trustee, being advised by counsel, determines that such action may not lawfully be taken; or (b) if a Responsible Officer of the Trustee in good faith shall determine that such action would expose the Trustee to personal liability to Holders of any then outstanding Series of Securities.
 
The Trustee may appoint an authenticating agent acceptable to the Company to authenticate Securities.  An authenticating agent may authenticate Securities whenever the Trustee may do so.  Each reference in this Indenture to authentication by the Trustee includes authentication by such agent.  An authenticating agent has the same rights as an Agent to deal with the Company or an Affiliate.
 
 

9


 
If any successor that has replaced the Company in accordance with Article 5 has executed an indenture supplemental hereto with the Trustee pursuant to Section 5.01, any of the Securities authenticated or delivered prior to such transaction may, from time to time, at the request of such successor, be exchanged for other Securities executed in the name of the such successor with such changes in phraseology and form as may be appropriate, but otherwise identical to the Securities surrendered for such exchange and of like principal amount; and the Trustee, upon receipt of a Company Order of such successor, shall authenticate and deliver Securities as specified in such order for the purpose of such exchange.  If Securities shall at any time be authenticated and delivered in any new name of such successor pursuant to this provision of Section 2.03 in exchange or substitution for or upon registration of transfer of any Securities, such successor, at the option of the Holders but without expense to them, shall provide for the exchange of all Securities then outstanding for Securities authenticated and delivered in such new name.
 
SECTION 2.04.          Registrar and Paying Agent.
 
The Company shall maintain, with respect to each Series of Securities, at the place or places specified with respect to such Series pursuant to Section 2.02, an office or agency where Securities of such Series may be presented or surrendered for payment ("Paying Agent") and where Securities of such Series may be surrendered for registration of transfer or exchange ("Registrar").  The Registrar shall keep a register with respect to each Series of Securities and to their transfer and exchange.  The Company will give prompt written notice to the Trustee of the name and address, and any change in the name or address, of each Registrar and Paying Agent.  If at any time the Company shall fail to maintain any such required Registrar or Paying Agent or shall fail to furnish the Trustee with the name and address thereof, such presentations and surrenders may be made or served at the Corporate Trust Office of the Trustee, and the Company hereby appoints the Trustee as its agent to receive all such presentations and surrenders.
 
The Company may also from time to time designate one or more co-registrars or additional paying agents and may from time to time rescind such designations; provided, however, that no such designation or rescission shall in any manner relieve the Company of its obligations to maintain a Registrar or Paying Agent in each place so specified pursuant to Section 2.02 for Securities of any Series for such purposes.  The Company will give prompt written notice to the Trustee of any such designation or rescission and of any change in the name or address of any such co-registrar or additional paying agent.  The term "Registrar" includes any co-registrar; and the term "Paying Agent" includes any additional paying agent.
 
The Company hereby appoints [          ] as the initial Registrar and Paying Agent for each Series unless another Registrar or Paying Agent as the case may be, is appointed prior to the time Securities of that Series are first issued.  Each Registrar and Paying Agent shall be entitled to all of the rights, protections, exculpations and indemnities afforded to the Trustee in connection with its roles as Registrar and Paying Agent.
 
SECTION 2.05.          Paying Agent to Hold Money in Trust.
 
The Company shall require each Paying Agent other than the Trustee to agree in writing that the Paying Agent will hold in trust, for the benefit of Securityholders of any Series of Securities, or the Trustee, all money held by the Paying Agent for the payment of principal of or interest on the Series of Securities, and will notify the Trustee of any default by the Company in making any such payment.  While any such default continues, the Trustee may require a Paying Agent to pay all money held by it to the Trustee.  The Company at any time may require a Paying Agent to pay all money held by it to the Trustee.  Upon payment over to the Trustee, the Paying Agent (if other than the Company or a Subsidiary) shall have no further liability for the money.  If the Company or a Subsidiary acts as Paying Agent, it shall segregate and hold in a separate trust fund for the benefit of Securityholders of any Series of Securities all money held by it as Paying Agent.
 
 

10


 
SECTION 2.06.          Securityholder Lists.
 
The Trustee shall preserve in as current a form as is reasonably practicable the most recent list available to it of the names and addresses of Securityholders of each Series of Securities and shall otherwise comply with TIA Section 312(a).  If the Trustee is not the Registrar, the Company shall furnish to the Trustee at least [  ] days before each interest payment date and at such other times as the Trustee may request in writing a list, in such form and as of such date as the Trustee may reasonably require, of the names and addresses of Securityholders of each Series of Securities.
 
SECTION 2.07.          Transfer and Exchange.
 
Where Securities of a Series are presented to the Registrar or a co-registrar with a request to register a transfer or to exchange them for an equal principal amount of Securities of the same Series, the Registrar shall register the transfer or make the exchange if its requirements for such transactions are met.  To permit registrations of transfers and exchanges, the Trustee shall authenticate Securities at the Registrar's request.  Any exchange or transfer shall be without charge, except that the Company or the Registrar may require payment of a sum sufficient to cover any tax or other governmental charge required by law; provided that this sentence shall not apply to any exchange pursuant to Section 2.11, 2.08, 3.06 or 9.06.
 
Neither the Company nor the Registrar shall be required (a) to issue, register the transfer of, or exchange Securities of any Series for the period beginning at the opening of business [  ] days immediately preceding the mailing of a notice of redemption of Securities of that Series selected for redemption and ending at the close of business on the day of such mailing, or (b) to register the transfer of or exchange Securities of any Series selected, called or being called for redemption as a whole or the portion being redeemed of any such Securities selected, called or being called for redemption in part.
 
All Securities issued upon any transfer or exchange of Securities shall be valid obligations of the Company, evidencing the same debt and entitled to the same benefits under this Indenture, as the Securities surrendered upon such transfer or exchange.  Any Registrar appointed pursuant to Section 2.04 shall provide to the Trustee such information as the Trustee may reasonably require in connection with the delivery by such Registrar of Securities upon transfer or exchange of Securities.  Each Holder of a Security agrees to indemnify the Company and the Trustee against any liability that may result from the transfer, exchange or assignment of such Holder's Security in violation of any provision of this Indenture and/or applicable U.S. federal or state securities law.

 

11


SECTION 2.08.          Mutilated, Destroyed, Lost and Stolen Securities.
 
If any mutilated Security is surrendered to the Registrar, the Company shall execute and the Trustee shall authenticate and deliver in exchange therefor a new Security of the same Series and of like tenor and principal amount and bearing a number not contemporaneously outstanding.
 
If there shall be delivered to the Company and the Registrar (i) evidence to their satisfaction of the destruction, loss or theft of any Security and (ii) such security or indemnity as may be required by them to save each of them and any agent of either of them harmless, then, in the absence of notice to the Company or the Registrar that such Security has been acquired by a bona fide purchaser, the Company shall execute and upon its request the Trustee shall authenticate and make available for delivery, in lieu of any such destroyed, lost or stolen Security, a new Security of the same Series and of like tenor and principal amount and bearing a number not contemporaneously outstanding.
 
In case any such mutilated, destroyed, lost or stolen Security has become or is about to become due and payable, the Company in its discretion may, instead of issuing a new Security, pay such Security.
 
Upon the issuance of any new Security under this Section, the Company may require the payment of a sum sufficient to cover any tax or other governmental charge that may be imposed in relation thereto and any other expenses (including the fees and expenses of the Trustee) connected therewith.
 
Every new Security of any series issued pursuant to this Section in lieu of any destroyed, lost or stolen Security shall constitute an original additional contractual obligation of the Company, whether or not the destroyed, lost or stolen Security shall be at any time enforceable by anyone, and shall be entitled to all the benefits of this Indenture equally and proportionately with any and all other Securities of that Series duly issued hereunder.
 
The provisions of this Section are exclusive and shall preclude (to the extent lawful) all other rights and remedies with respect to the replacement or payment of mutilated, destroyed, lost or stolen Securities.
 
SECTION 2.09.          Outstanding Securities.
 
The Securities outstanding at any time are all the Securities authenticated by the Trustee except for those canceled by it, those delivered to it for cancellation, those reductions in the interest on a Global Security effected by the Trustee in accordance with the provisions hereof and those described in this Section as not outstanding.
 
If a Security is replaced pursuant to Section 2.08, it ceases to be outstanding until the Trustee receives proof satisfactory to it that the replaced Security is held by a bona fide purchaser.
 
 

12


 
If the Paying Agent (other than the Company, a Subsidiary or an Affiliate of any thereof) holds on the Maturity of Securities of a Series money sufficient to pay such Securities payable on that date, then on and after that date such Securities of the Series cease to be outstanding and interest on them ceases to accrue.
 
A Security does not cease to be outstanding because the Company or an Affiliate holds the Security.
 
In determining whether the Holders of the requisite principal amount of outstanding Securities have given any request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent or waiver hereunder, the principal amount of a Discount Security that shall be deemed to be outstanding for such purposes shall be the amount of the principal thereof that would be due and payable as of the date of such determination upon a declaration of acceleration of the Maturity thereof pursuant to Section 6.02.
 
SECTION 2.10.          Treasury Securities.
 
In determining whether the Holders of the required principal amount of Securities of a Series have concurred in any request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent or waiver Securities of a Series owned by the Company or an Affiliate shall be disregarded, except that for the purposes of determining whether the Trustee shall be protected in relying on any such request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent or waiver only Securities of a Series that a Responsible Officer of the Trustee actually knows are so owned shall be so disregarded.
 
SECTION 2.11.          Temporary Securities.
 
Until definitive Securities are ready for delivery, the Company may prepare and the Trustee shall authenticate temporary securities upon a Company Order ("Temporary Securities").  Temporary Securities shall be substantially in the form of definitive Securities but may have variations that the Company considers appropriate for temporary Securities.  Without unreasonable delay, the Company shall prepare and the Trustee upon written request shall authenticate definitive Securities of the same Series and date of maturity in exchange for temporary Securities.  Until so exchanged, temporary securities shall have the same rights under this Indenture as the definitive Securities.
 
SECTION 2.12.          Cancellation.
 
The Company at any time may deliver Securities to the Trustee for cancellation.  The Registrar and the Paying Agent shall forward to the Trustee or its agent any Securities surrendered to them for transfer, exchange, payment or conversion.  The Trustee and no one else shall cancel, in accordance with its standard procedures, all Securities surrendered for transfer, exchange, payment, conversion or cancellation and shall deliver the cancelled Securities to the Company.  No Security shall be authenticated in exchange for any Security cancelled pursuant to this Section 2.12.
 
The Company may, to the extent permitted by law, purchase Securities in the open market or by tender offer at any price or by private agreement.  Any Securities purchased or otherwise acquired by the Company or any of its Subsidiaries prior to the final maturity of such Securities may, to the extent permitted by law, be reissued or resold or may, at the option of the Company, be surrendered to the Trustee for cancellation.  Any Securities surrendered for cancellation may not be reissued or resold and shall be promptly cancelled by the Trustee, and the Company may not hold or resell such Securities or issue any new Securities to replace any such Securities.
 
 

13

 
 
SECTION 2.13.          Defaulted Interest.
 
If the Company defaults in a payment of interest on a Series of Securities, it shall pay defaulted interest, plus, to the extent permitted by law, any interest payable on the defaulted interest at the Default Rate, to the persons who are Security holders of the Series on a subsequent special record date.  The Company shall fix the record date and payment date.  At least [  ] days before the record date, the Company shall mail to the Trustee and the Paying Agent and to each Securityholder of the Series a notice that states the record date, the payment date and the amount of interest to be paid.  The Company may pay defaulted interest in any other lawful manner.
 
SECTION 2.14.          Global Securities.
 
(a)          A Board Resolution, a supplemental indenture hereto or an Officers' Certificate shall establish whether the Securities of a Series shall be issued in whole or in part in the form of one or more Global Securities and the Depository for such Global Security or Securities.
 
(b)          (i)            Notwithstanding any provisions to the contrary contained in Section 2.07 of the Indenture and in addition thereto, any Global Security shall be exchangeable pursuant to Section 2.07 of the Indenture for Securities registered in the names of Holders other than the Depository for such Security or its nominee only if (A) such Depository notifies the Company that it is unwilling or unable to continue as Depository for such Global Security or if at any time such Depository ceases to be a clearing agency registered under the Exchange Act, and, in either case, the Company fails to appoint a successor Depository within 90 days of such event, (B) the Company executes and delivers to the Trustee an Officers' Certificate to the effect that such Global Security shall be so exchangeable or (C) an Event of Default with respect to the Securities represented by such Global Security shall have happened and be continuing.
 
(ii)          Except as provided in this Section 2.14(b), a Global Security may not be transferred except as a whole by the Depository with respect to such Global Security to a nominee of such Depository, by a nominee of such Depository to such Depository or another nominee of such Depository or by the Depository or any such nominee to a successor Depository or a nominee of such a successor Depository.
 
(iii)         Securities issued in exchange for a Global Security or any portion thereof shall be issued in definitive, fully registered form, without interest coupons, shall have an aggregate principal amount equal to that of such Global Security or portion thereof to be so exchanged, shall be registered in such names and be in such authorized denominations as the Depository shall designate and shall bear the applicable legends provided for herein.  Any Global Security to be exchanged in whole shall be surrendered by the Depository to the Trustee, as Registrar.  With regard to any Global Security to be exchanged in part, either such Global Security shall be so surrendered for exchange or, if the Registrar is acting as custodian for the Depository or its nominee with respect to such Global Security, the principal amount thereof shall be reduced by an amount equal to the portion thereof to be so exchanged, by means of an appropriate adjustment made on the records of the Trustee.  Upon any such surrender or adjustment, the Trustee shall authenticate and deliver the Security issuable on such exchange to or upon the order of the Depository or an authorized representative thereof.
 
 
 

14


 
(iv)         The registered Holder may grant proxies and otherwise authorize any Person, including participants in the Depository and persons that may hold interests through participants in the Depository, to take any action which a Holder is entitled to take under this Indenture or the Securities.
 
(v)          In the event of the occurrence of any of the events specified in 2.14(b)(i), the Company will promptly make available to the Trustee a reasonable supply of Certificated Securities in definitive, fully registered form, without interest coupons.  If (A) an event described in Section 2.14(b)(i)(A) or (B) occurs and definitive Certificated Securities are not issued promptly to all beneficial owners or (B) the Registrar receives from a beneficial owner instructions to obtain definitive Certificated Securities due to an event described in Section 2.14(b)(i)(C) and definitive Certificated Securities are not issued promptly to any such beneficial owner, the Company expressly acknowledges, with respect to the right of any Holder to pursue a remedy pursuant to Section 6.07 hereof, the right of any beneficial owner of Securities to pursue such remedy with respect to the portion of the Global Security that represents such beneficial owner's Securities as if such definitive certificated Securities had been issued.
 
(vi)          Notwithstanding any provision to the contrary in this Indenture, so long as a Global Security remains outstanding and is held by or on behalf of the Depository, transfers of a Global Security, in whole or in part, or of any beneficial interest therein, shall only be made in accordance with Section 2.07, this Section 2.14(b) and the rules and procedures of the Depository for such Global Security to the extent applicable to such transaction and as in effect from time to time.
 
(c)          Any Global Security issued hereunder shall bear a legend in substantially the following form:
 
"This Security is a Global Security within the meaning of the Indenture hereinafter referred to and is registered in the name of the Depository or a nominee of the Depository.  This Security is exchangeable for Securities registered in the name of a person other than the Depository or its nominee only in the limited circumstances described in the Indenture, and may not be transferred except as a whole by the Depository to a nominee of the Depository, by a nominee of the Depository to the Depository or another nominee of the Depository or by the Depository or any such nominee to a successor Depository or a nominee of such a successor Depository."
 
(d)          The Depository, as a Holder, may appoint agents and otherwise authorize participants to give or take any request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver or other action which a Holder is entitled to give or take under the Indenture.
 
 
 

15


 
(e)          Notwithstanding the other provisions of this Indenture, unless otherwise specified as contemplated by Section 2.02, payment of the principal of and interest, if any, on any Global Security shall be made to the Holder thereof at their registered office.
 
(f)          At all times the Securities are held in book-entry form with a Depository, (i) the Trustee may deal with such Depository as the authorized representative of the Holders, (ii) the rights of the Holders shall be exercised only through the Depository and shall be limited to those established by law and agreement between the Holders and the Depository and/or direct participants of the Depository, (iii) the Depository will make book-entry transfers among the direct participants of the Depository and will receive and transmit distributions of principal and interest on the Securities to such direct participants; and (iv) the direct participants of the Depository shall have no rights under this Indenture, or any supplement hereto, under or with respect to any of the Securities held on their behalf by the Depository, and the Depository may be treated by the Trustee and its agents, employees, officers and directors as the absolute owner of the Securities for all purposes whatsoever.
 
SECTION 2.15.          CUSIP Numbers.
 
The Company in issuing the Securities may use "CUSIP", "CCN", "ISIN" or other identification numbers (if then generally in use), and, if so, the Trustee shall use "CUSIP", "CCN", "ISIN" or such other identification numbers in notices of redemption as a convenience to Holders; provided that any such notice may state that no representation is made as to the correctness of such numbers either as printed on the Securities or as contained in any notice of a redemption and that reliance may be placed only on the other elements of identification printed on the Securities, and any such redemption shall not be affected by any defect in or omission of such numbers.
 
ARTICLE III

REDEMPTION
 
SECTION 3.01.          Notice to Trustee.
 
The Company may, with respect to any series of Securities, reserve the right to redeem and pay the Series of Securities or may covenant to redeem and pay the Series of Securities or any part thereof prior to the Stated Maturity thereof at such time and on such terms as provided for in such Securities.  If a Series of Securities is redeemable and the Company wants or is obligated to redeem prior to the Stated Maturity thereof all or part of the Series of Securities pursuant to the terms of such Securities, it shall notify the Trustee and Registrar in writing of the redemption date and the principal amount of Series of Securities to be redeemed.  The Company shall give the notice at least [  ] days before the redemption date (or such shorter notice as may be acceptable to the Trustee and Registrar).
 
SECTION 3.02.          Selection of Securities to be Redeemed.
 
Unless otherwise indicated for a particular Series by a Board Resolution, a supplemental indenture or an Officers' Certificate, if less than all the Securities of a Series are to be redeemed, the Registrar shall select the Securities of the Series to be redeemed in accordance with its customary procedures.  The Registrar shall make the selection from Securities of the Series outstanding not previously called for redemption.  The Registrar may select for redemption portions of the principal of Securities of the Series that have denominations larger than $1,000.  Securities of the Series and portions of them it selects shall be in amounts of $1,000 or whole multiples of $1,000 or, with respect to Securities of any Series issuable in other denominations pursuant to Section 2.02(g), the minimum principal denomination for each Series and integral multiples thereof.  Provisions of this Indenture that apply to Securities of a Series called for redemption also apply to portions of Securities of that Series called for redemption.
 
 
 

16


 
SECTION 3.03.          Notice of Redemption.
 
Unless otherwise indicated for a particular Series by Board Resolution, a supplemental indenture hereto or an Officers' Certificate, at least [  ] days but not more than [  ] days before a redemption date, the Company shall mail a notice of redemption by first-class mail to each Holder whose Securities are to be redeemed.
 
The notice shall identify the Securities of the Series to be redeemed and shall state:
 
(a)          the redemption date;
 
(b)          the redemption price;
 
(c)          the name and address of the Paying Agent;
 
(d)          that Securities of the Series called for redemption must be surrendered to the Paying Agent to collect the redemption price;
 
(e)          that interest on Securities of the Series called for redemption ceases to accrue on and after the redemption date; and
 
(f)          any other information as may be required by the terms of the particular Series or the Securities of a Series being redeemed.
 
At the Company's written request, the Trustee shall distribute the notice of redemption prepared by the Company in the Company's name and at its expense.
 
SECTION 3.04.          Effect of Notice of Redemption.
 
Once notice of redemption is mailed or published as provided in Section 3.03, Securities of a Series called for redemption become due and payable on the redemption date and at the redemption price.  A notice of redemption may not be conditional.  Upon surrender to the Paying Agent, such Securities shall be paid at the redemption price plus accrued interest to the redemption date.
 
 
 

17


 
SECTION 3.05.          Deposit of Redemption Price.
 
On or before the redemption date, the Company shall deposit with the Paying Agent money sufficient to pay the redemption price of and accrued interest, if any, on all Securities to be redeemed on that date.
 
SECTION 3.06.          Securities Redeemed in Part.
 
Upon surrender of a Security that is redeemed in part, the Trustee shall authenticate for the Holder a new Security of the same Series and the same maturity equal in principal amount to the unredeemed portion of the Security surrendered.
 

ARTICLE IV

COVENANTS
 
SECTION 4.01.          Payment of Principal and Interest.
 
The Company covenants and agrees for the benefit of the Holders of each Series of Securities that it will duly and punctually pay the principal of and interest, if any, on the Securities of that Series in accordance with the terms of such Securities and this Indenture. 

Unless otherwise provided under the terms of a particular Series of Securities:

(a)          an installment of principal or interest shall be considered paid on the date it is due if the Paying Agent (other than the Company) holds by [          ] [a].m., New York City time, on that date money, deposited by the Company or an Affiliate thereof, sufficient to pay such installment.  The Company shall (in immediately available funds), to the fullest extent permitted by law, pay interest on overdue principal and overdue installments of interest at the rate borne by the Securities per annum; and
 
(b)          payment of the principal of and interest on the Securities shall be made at the office or agency of the Company maintained for that purpose in [          ] (which shall initially be [          ], the Paying Agent) in such coin or currency of the United States of America as at the time of payment is legal tender for payment of public and private debts; provided, however, that at the option of the Company payment of interest may be made by check mailed to the address of the Person entitled thereto as such address appears in the register; provided, further, that a Holder with an aggregate principal amount in excess of $[] will be paid by wire transfer in immediately available funds at the election of such Holder if such Holder has provided wire transfer instructions to the Company at least [  ] Business Days prior to the payment date.
 

SECTION 4.02.          SEC Reports.
 
So long as any Securities are outstanding, the Company shall (i) file with the SEC within the time periods prescribed by its rules and regulations and (ii) furnish to the Trustee and the Holders of the Securities within [  ] days after the date on which the Company would be required to file the same with the SEC pursuant to its rules and regulations (giving effect to any grace period provided by Rule 12b-25 under the Exchange Act), all quarterly and annual financial information required to be furnished or filed with the SEC pursuant to Section 13 and Section 15(d) of the Exchange Act and, with respect to the annual consolidated financial statements only, a report thereon by the Company's independent auditors.  The Company also shall comply with the other provisions of TIA Section 314(a).
 
 
 

18


 
Delivery of such reports, information and documents to the Trustee is for informational purposes only, and the Trustee's receipt of such shall not constitute constructive notice of any information contained therein or determinable from information contained therein, including the Company's compliance with any of its covenants hereunder (as to which the Trustee is entitled to rely exclusively on Officers' Certificates).  The Company shall not be required to file any report or other information with the SEC if the SEC does not permit such filing, although such reports shall be furnished to the Trustee.  Documents filed by the Company with the SEC via the SEC's EDGAR system (or any successor thereto) will be deemed furnished to the Trustee and the Holders of the Securities as of the time such documents are filed via EDGAR (or such successor).
 
SECTION 4.03.          Compliance Certificate.
 
The Company shall deliver to the Trustee, within [   ] days after the end of each fiscal year of the Company, an officers certificate signed by two of the Company's officers stating that a review of the activities of the Company and its Subsidiaries during the preceding fiscal year has been made under the supervision of the signing Officers with a view to determining whether the Company has kept, observed, performed and fulfilled its obligations under this Indenture, and further stating, as to each such Officer signing such certificate, that to the best of his knowledge the Company has kept, observed, performed and fulfilled each and every covenant contained in this Indenture and is not in default in the performance or observance of any of the terms, provisions and conditions hereof (or, if a Default or Event of Default shall have occurred, describing all such Defaults or Events of Default of which he may have knowledge in reasonable detail and the efforts to remedy the same).  For purposes of this Section 4.03, compliance shall be determined without regard to any grace period or requirement of notice provided pursuant to the terms of this Indenture.
 
The Company shall deliver to the Trustee, within [  ] days after the occurrence thereof, written notice in the form of an Officers' Certificate of any Event of Default described in Section 6.01(e), (f), (g) or (h) and any event of which it becomes aware that with the giving of notice or the lapse of time would become such an Event of Default, its status and what action the Company is taking or proposes to take with respect thereto.  For the avoidance of doubt, a breach of a covenant under an Instrument that is not a payment default and that has not given rise to a right of acceleration under such Instrument shall not trigger the requirement to provide notice under this paragraph.
 
 
 

19


 
SECTION 4.04.          Stay, Extension and Usury Laws.
 
The Company covenants (to the extent that it may lawfully do so) that it will not at any time insist upon, plead, or in any manner whatsoever claim or take the benefit or advantage of, any stay, extension or usury law wherever enacted, now or at any time hereafter in force, which may affect the covenants or the performance of this Indenture or the Securities; and the Company (to the extent it may lawfully do so) hereby expressly waives all benefit or advantage of any such law and covenants that it will not, by resort to any such law, hinder, delay or impede the execution of any power herein granted to the Trustee, but will suffer and permit the execution of every such power as though no such law has been enacted.
 
SECTION 4.05.          Corporate Existence.
 
Subject to Article V, the Company will do or cause to be done all things necessary to preserve and keep in full force and effect its corporate existence and the corporate, partnership or other existence of each Subsidiary in accordance with the respective organizational documents of each Subsidiary and the rights (charter and statutory), licenses and franchises of the Company and its Subsidiaries; provided, however, that the Company shall not be required to preserve any such right, license or franchise, or the corporate, partnership or other existence of any Subsidiary, if the Board of Directors shall determine that the preservation thereof is no longer desirable in the conduct of the business of the Company and its Subsidiaries taken as a whole and that the loss thereof is not adverse in any material respect to the Holders.
 
SECTION 4.06.          Taxes.
 
The Company shall, and shall cause each of its Subsidiaries to, pay prior to delinquency all taxes, assessments and governmental levies, except as contested in good faith and by appropriate proceedings.
 
SECTION 4.07.          Additional Interest Notice.
 
In the event that the Company is required to pay additional interest to Holders of Securities pursuant to Section 6.02(b) hereof, the Company shall provide a direction or order in the form of a written notice to the Trustee (and if the Trustee is not the Paying Agent, the Paying Agent) of the Company's obligation to pay such additional interest no later than [   ] Business Days prior to date on which any such additional interest is scheduled to be paid.  Such notice shall set forth the amount of additional interest to be paid by the Company on such payment date and direct the Trustee (or, if the Trustee is not the Paying Agent, the Paying Agent) to make payment to the extent it receives funds from the Company to do so.  The Trustee shall not at any time be under any duty or responsibility to any Holder to determine whether additional interest is payable, or with respect to the nature, extent, or calculation of the amount of additional interest owed, or with respect to the method employed in such calculation of additional interest.
 
SECTION 4.08.          Further Instruments and Acts.
 
The Company will execute and deliver such further instruments and do such further acts as may be reasonably necessary or proper to carry out more effectively the purposes of this Indenture.
 
 

20


 
ARTICLE V 

SUCCESSORS
 
SECTION 5.01.          When Company May Merge, Etc.
 
The Company shall not consolidate with, enter into a binding share exchange, or merge into any other Person in a transaction in which it is not the surviving entity, or sell, assign, convey, transfer or lease or otherwise dispose of all or substantially all of its properties and assets to any Person (a "successor person"), unless:
 
(a)          the successor person (if any) is a corporation, partnership, trust or other entity organized and validly existing under the laws of the Republic of the Marshall Islands, [          ], the United States, any state of the United States or the District of Columbia and expressly assumes by a supplemental indenture executed and delivered to the Trustee, in form satisfactory to the Trustee, the due and punctual payment of the principal of, and any interest on, all Securities and the performance or observance of every covenant of this Indenture on the part of the Company to be performed or observed;
 
(b)          immediately after giving effect to the transaction, no Default or Event of Default, shall have occurred and be continuing; and
 
(c)          the Company shall have delivered to the Trustee, prior to the consummation of the proposed transaction, an Officers' Certificate to the foregoing effect and an Opinion of Counsel stating that the proposed transaction and such supplemental indenture comply with this Indenture.
 
SECTION 5.02.          Successor Corporation Substituted.
 
Upon any consolidation or merger, or any sale, lease, conveyance or other disposition of all or substantially all of the assets of the Company in accordance with Section 5.01, the successor person formed by such consolidation or into or with which the Company is merged or to which such sale, lease, conveyance or other disposition is made shall succeed to, and be substituted for, and may exercise every right and power of, the Company under this Indenture with the same effect as if such successor person has been named as the Company herein; provided, however, that the predecessor company in the case of a sale, lease, conveyance or other disposition of all or substantially all of the assets of the Company shall not be released from the obligation to pay the principal of and interest, if any, on the Securities.
 
ARTICLE VI

DEFAULTS AND REMEDIES
 
SECTION 6.01.          Events of Default.
 
"Event of Default," wherever used herein with respect to securities of any Series, means any one of the following events, unless in the establishing Board Resolution, supplemental indenture or Officers' Certificate, it is provided that such Series shall not have the benefit of said Event of Default:
 
 
 

21


 
(a)          default in the payment of any interest on any Security of that Series when it becomes due and payable, and continuance of such default for a period of 30 days (unless the entire amount of such payment is deposited by the Company with the Trustee or with a Paying Agent prior to the expiration of such period of 30 days); or
 
(b)          default in the payment of any principal of any Security of that Series at its Maturity; or
 
(c)          default in the deposit of any sinking fund payment, when and as due in respect of any Security of that Series; or
 
(d)          the Company fails to perform or comply with any of its other covenants or agreements contained in the Securities or in this Indenture (other than a covenant or agreement a default in whose performance or whose breach is specifically dealt with in clauses (a), (b) or (c) of this Section 6.01) and the default continues for 60 days after notice is given as specified below;
 
(e)          any indebtedness under any bond, debenture, note or other evidence of indebtedness for money borrowed by the Company or any Subsidiary or under any mortgage, indenture or instrument under which there may be issued or by which there may be secured or evidenced any indebtedness for money borrowed by, or any other payment obligation of, the Company or any Subsidiary (an "Instrument") with a principal amount then, individually or in the aggregate, outstanding in excess of $[], whether such indebtedness now exists or shall hereafter be created, is not paid at Maturity or when otherwise due or is accelerated, and such indebtedness is not discharged, or such default in payment or acceleration is not cured or rescinded, within a period of 30 days after there shall have been given, by registered or certified mail, to the Company by the Trustee or to the Company and the Trustee by the Holders of at least [  ]% in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding Securities of that Series a written notice specifying such default and requiring the Company to cause such indebtedness to be discharged or cause such default to be cured or waived or such acceleration to be rescinded or annulled and stating that such notice is a "Notice of Default" hereunder.  A payment obligation (other than indebtedness under any bond, debenture, note or other evidence of indebtedness for money borrowed by the Company or any Subsidiary or under any mortgage, indenture or instrument under which there may be issued or by which there may be secured or evidenced any indebtedness for money borrowed by the Company or any Subsidiary) shall not be deemed to have matured, come due, or been accelerated to the extent that it is being disputed by the relevant obligor or obligors in good faith.  For the avoidance of doubt, the Maturity of an Instrument is the Maturity as set forth in that Instrument, as it may be amended from time to time in accordance with the terms of that Instrument;
 
(f)          the Company or any Subsidiary fails to pay one or more final and non-appealable judgments entered by a court or courts of competent jurisdiction, the aggregate uninsured or unbonded portion of which is in excess of $[          ], if the judgments are not paid, discharged, waived or stayed within [  ] days;
 
 

22


 
(g)          the Company or any Subsidiary of the Company, pursuant to or within the meaning of any Bankruptcy Law:
 
(i)          commences a voluntary case or proceeding;
 
(ii)         consents to the entry of an order for relief against it in an involuntary case or proceeding;
 
(iii)        consents to the appointment of a Custodian of it or for all or substantially all of its property; or
 
(iv)        makes a general assignment for the benefit of its creditors; or
 
(v)         or generally is unable to pay its debts as the same become due; or
 
(h)          a court of competent jurisdiction enters an order or decree under any Bankruptcy Law that:
 
(i)          is for relief against the Company or any of its Subsidiaries in an involuntary case or proceeding;
 
(ii)         appoints a Custodian of the Company or any of its Subsidiaries for all or substantially all of the property of the Company or any such Subsidiary; or
 
(iii)        orders the liquidation of the Company or any of its Subsidiaries;
 
and the case of each of clause (i), (ii) and (iii), the order or decree remains unstayed and in effect for [  ] consecutive days; or
 
(i)          any other Event of Default provided with respect to Securities of that Series, which is specified in a Board Resolution, a supplemental indenture hereto or an Officers' Certificate, in accordance with Section 2.02(i).
 
A default under clause (d) above is not an Event of Default until the Trustee notifies the Company, or the Holders of at least [  ]% in aggregate principal amount of the Securities then outstanding notify the Company and the Trustee, in writing of the default, and the Company does not cure the default within 60 days after receipt of such notice.  The notice given pursuant to this Section 6.01 must specify the default, demand that it be remedied and state that the notice is a "Notice of Default."  When any default under this Section 6.01 is cured, it ceases.
 
The Trustee shall not be charged with knowledge of any Event of Default unless written notice thereof shall have been given to a Trust Officer at the Corporate Trust Office of the Trustee by the Company, a Paying Agent, any Holder or any agent of any Holder. 
 
SECTION 6.02.          Acceleration of Maturity; Rescission and Annulment.

23


 
(a)          If an Event of Default (other than an Event of Default specified in clause (g) or (h) of Section 6.01) occurs and is continuing with respect to any Securities of any Series, then in every such case, the Trustee may, by notice to the Company, or the Holders of at least 25% in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of that Series (or, if any Securities of that Series are Discount Securities, such portion of the principal amount as may be specified in the terms of such Securities) then outstanding may, by notice to the Company and the Trustee, declare all unpaid principal of, and accrued and unpaid interest on to the date of acceleration, the Securities of that Series then outstanding (if not then due and payable) to be due and payable upon any such declaration, and the same shall become and be immediately due and payable.  If an Event of Default specified in clause (g) or (h) of Section 6.01 occurs, all unpaid principal of the Securities then outstanding, and all accrued and unpaid interest thereon to the date of acceleration, shall ipso facto become and be immediately due and payable without any declaration or other act on the part of the Trustee or any Holder.  The Holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of that Series then outstanding by notice to the Trustee may rescind an acceleration of such Securities of that Series and its consequences if (a) all existing Events of Default, other than the nonpayment of the principal of the Securities which has become due solely by such declaration of acceleration, have been cured or waived; (b) to the extent the payment of such interest is lawful, interest (calculated at the Default Rate) on overdue installments of interest and overdue principal, which has become due otherwise than by such declaration of acceleration, has been paid; (c) the rescission would not conflict with any judgment or decree of a court of competent jurisdiction; and (d) all payments due to the Trustee and any predecessor Trustee under Section 7.07 have been made.  No such rescission shall affect any subsequent default or impair any right consequent thereto.
 
(b)          Notwithstanding any of provision of this Article 6, at the election of the Company in its sole discretion, the sole remedy under this Indenture for an Event of Default relating to the failure to comply with Section 4.02, and for any failure to comply with the requirements of Section 314(a)(1) of the TIA, will consist, for the 180 days after the occurrence of such an Event of Default, exclusively of the right to receive additional interest on the Securities at a rate equal to 0.50% per annum of the aggregate principal amount of the Securities then outstanding up to, but not including, the 181st day thereafter (or, if applicable, the earlier date on which the Event of Default relating to Section 4.02 is cured or waived).  Any such additional interest will be payable in the same manner and on the same dates as the stated interest payable on the Securities.  In no event shall additional interest accrue under the terms of this Indenture at a rate in excess of 0.50% per annum, in the aggregate, for any violation or default caused by the failure of the Company to be current in respect of its Exchange Act reporting obligations.  If the Event of Default is continuing on the 181st day after an Event of Default relating to a failure to comply with Section 4.02, the Securities will be subject to acceleration as provided in this Section 6.02.  The provisions of this Section 6.02(b) will not affect the rights of Holders in the event of the occurrence of any other Events of Default.
 
In order to elect to pay additional interest as the sole remedy during the first 180 days after the occurrence of an Event of Default relating to the failure to comply with Section 4.02 in accordance with the immediately preceding paragraph, the Company shall notify all Holders and the Trustee and Paying Agent of such election on or before the close of business on the fifth Business Day after the date on which such Event of Default otherwise would occur.  Upon a failure by the Company to timely give such notice or pay additional interest, the Securities will be immediately subject to acceleration as otherwise provided in this Section 6.02.
 
 

24


 
SECTION 6.03.          Collection of Indebtedness and Suits for Enforcement by Trustee.
 
If an Event of Default with respect to any Securities of any Series occurs and is continuing, the Trustee may in its discretion proceed to protect and enforce its rights and the rights of the Holders of Securities of such Series by such appropriate judicial proceedings as the Trustee shall deem most effectual to protect and enforce any such rights, whether for the specific enforcement of any covenant or agreement in this Indenture or in aid of the exercise of any power granted herein, or to enforce any other proper remedy.
 
If an Event of Default in the payment of principal, interest, if any, specified in clause (a) or (b) of Section 6.01 occurs and is continuing, the Trustee may recover judgment in its own name and as trustee of an express trust against the Company or another obligor on the Securities for the whole amount of principal, and accrued interest remaining unpaid, if any, together with, to the extent that payment of such interest is lawful, interest on overdue principal, on overdue installments of interest, if any, in each case at the Default Rate, and such further amount as shall be sufficient to cover the costs and expenses of collection, including the reasonable compensation, expenses, disbursements and advances of the Trustee, its agents and counsel.
 
SECTION 6.04.          Trustee May File Proofs of Claim.
 
In case of the pendency of any receivership, insolvency, liquidation, bankruptcy, reorganization, arrangement, adjustment, composition or other judicial proceeding relative to the Company or any other obligor upon the Securities or the property of the Company or of such other obligor or their creditors, the Trustee (irrespective of whether the principal of the Securities shall then be due and payable as therein expressed or by declaration or otherwise and irrespective of whether the Trustee shall have made any demand on the Company for the payment of overdue principal or interest) shall be entitled and empowered, by intervention in such proceeding or otherwise,
 
(a)          to file and prove a claim for the whole amount of principal and interest owing and unpaid in respect of the Securities and to file such other papers or documents as may be necessary or advisable in order to have the claims of the Trustee (including any claim for the reasonable compensation, expenses, disbursements and advances of the Trustee, its agents and counsel) and of the Holders allowed in such judicial proceeding, and
 
(b)          to collect and receive any moneys or other property payable or deliverable on any such claims and to distribute the same, and any custodian, receiver, assignee, trustee, liquidator, sequestrator or other similar official in any such judicial proceeding is hereby authorized by each Holder to make such payments to the Trustee and, in the event that the Trustee shall consent to the making of such payments directly to the Holders, to pay to the Trustee any amount due it for the reasonable compensation, expenses, disbursements and advances of the Trustee, its agents and counsel, and any other amounts due the Trustee under Section 7.07.
 

25


 
Nothing herein contained shall be deemed to authorize the Trustee to authorize or consent to or accept or adopt on behalf of any Holder any plan of reorganization, arrangement, adjustment or composition affecting the Securities or the rights of any Holder thereof or to authorize the Trustee to vote in respect of the claim of any Holder in any such proceeding.
 
SECTION 6.05.          Trustee May Enforce Claims Without Possession of Securities.
 
All rights of action and claims under this Indenture or the Securities may be prosecuted and enforced by the Trustee without the possession of any of the Securities or the production thereof in any proceeding relating thereto, and any such proceeding instituted by the Trustee shall be brought in its own name as trustee of an express trust, and any recovery of judgment shall, after provision for the payment of the reasonable compensation, expenses, disbursements and advances of the Trustee, its agents and counsel, be for the ratable benefit of the Holders of the Securities in respect of which such judgment has been recovered.
 
SECTION 6.06.          Application of Money Collected.
 
Any money collected by the Trustee pursuant to this Article shall be applied in the following order, at the date or dates fixed by the Trustee and, in case of the distribution of such money on account of principal or interest, upon presentation of the Securities and the notation thereon of the payment if only partially paid and upon surrender thereof if fully paid: and
 
First: To the payment of all amounts due the Trustee under Section 7.07;
 
Second: To the payment of the amounts then due and unpaid for principal of and interest on the Securities in respect of which or for the benefit of which such money has been collected, ratably, without preference or priority of any kind, according to the amounts due and payable on such Securities for principal and interest, respectively; and
 
Third: To the Company.
 
SECTION 6.07.          Limitation on Suits.
 
No Holder of any Security of any Series shall have any right to institute any proceeding, judicial or otherwise, with respect to this Indenture, or for the appointment of a receiver or trustee, or for any other remedy hereunder (except actions for payment of overdue principal and interest), unless:
 
(a)          such Holder has previously given written notice to the Trustee of a continuing Event of Default with respect to the Securities of that Series;
 
(b)          the Holders of not less than [  ]% in principal amount of the outstanding Securities of that Series shall have made written request to the Trustee to institute proceedings in respect of such Event of Default in its own name as Trustee hereunder;
 
(c)          such Holder or Holders have offered to the Trustee indemnity satisfactory to it against the costs, expenses and liabilities to be incurred in compliance with such request;
 
 

26


 
(d)          the Trustee for [  ] days after its receipt of such notice, request and offer of indemnity has failed to institute any such proceeding; and
 
(e)          no direction inconsistent with such written request has been given to the Trustee during such [  ]-day period by the Holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding Securities of that Series; it being understood and intended that no one or more of such Holders shall have any right in any manner whatever by virtue of, or by availing of, any provision of this Indenture to affect, disturb or prejudice the rights of any other of such Holders, or to obtain or to seek to obtain priority or preference over any other of such Holders or to enforce any right under this Indenture, except in the manner herein provided and for the equal and ratable benefit of all such Holders.
 
SECTION 6.08.          Unconditional Right of Holders to Receive Principal and Interest.
 
Notwithstanding any other provision in this Indenture, the Holder of any Security shall have the right, which is absolute and unconditional, to receive payment of the principal of and interest, if any, on such Security on the Stated Maturity or Stated Maturities expressed in such Security (or, in the case of redemption, on the redemption date) and to institute suit for the enforcement of any such payment, and such rights shall not be impaired without the consent of such Holder.
 
SECTION 6.09.          Restoration of Rights and Remedies.
 
If the Trustee or any Holder has instituted any proceeding to enforce any right or remedy under this Indenture and such proceeding has been discontinued or abandoned for any reason, or has been determined adversely to the Trustee or to such Holder, then and in every such case, subject to any determination in such proceeding, the Company, the Trustee and the Holders shall be restored severally and respectively to their former positions hereunder and thereafter all rights and remedies of the Trustee and the Holders shall continue as though no such proceeding had been instituted.
 
SECTION 6.10.          Rights and Remedies Cumulative.
 
Except as otherwise provided with respect to the replacement or payment of mutilated, destroyed, lost or stolen Securities in Section 2.08, no right or remedy herein conferred upon or reserved to the Trustee or to the Holders is intended to be exclusive of any other right or remedy, and every right and remedy shall, to the extent permitted by law, be cumulative and in addition to every other right and remedy given hereunder or now or hereafter existing at law or in equity or otherwise.  The assertion or employment of any right or remedy hereunder, or otherwise, shall not prevent the concurrent assertion or employment of any other appropriate right or remedy.
 
SECTION 6.11.          Delay or Omission Not Waiver.
 
No delay or omission of the Trustee or of any Holder of any Securities to exercise any right or remedy accruing upon any Event of Default shall impair any such right or remedy or constitute a waiver of any such Event of Default or an acquiescence therein.  Every right and remedy given by this Article or by law to the Trustee or to the Holders may be exercised from time to time, and as often as may be deemed expedient, by the Trustee or by the Holders, as the case may be.
 
 

27


 
SECTION 6.12.          Control by Holders.
 
The Holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding Securities of any Series shall have the right to direct the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the Trustee, or exercising any trust or power conferred on the Trustee, with respect to the Securities of such Series, provided that
 
(a)          such direction shall not be in conflict with any rule of law or with this Indenture,
 
(b)          the Trustee may take any other action deemed proper by the Trustee which is not inconsistent with such direction; and
 
(c)          subject to the provisions of Section 6.01, the Trustee shall have the right to decline to follow any such direction if the Trustee in good faith shall, by a Responsible Officer of the Trustee, determine that the proceeding so directed would involve the Trustee in personal liability or would be unduly prejudicial to the rights of another Holder or the Trustee.
 
SECTION 6.13.          Waiver of Past Defaults.
 
Subject to Section 9.02, the Holders of not less than a majority in principal amount of the outstanding Securities of any Series may on behalf of the Holders of all the Securities of such Series waive any past Default hereunder with respect to such Series and its consequences, except a Default in the payment of the principal of or interest on any Security of such Series (provided, however, that the Holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding Securities of any Series may rescind an acceleration and its consequences, including any related payment default that resulted from such acceleration).  Upon any such waiver, such Default shall cease to exist, and any Event of Default arising therefrom shall be deemed to have been cured, for every purpose of this Indenture; but no such waiver shall extend to any subsequent or other Default or impair any right consequent thereon.
 
SECTION 6.14.          Undertaking for Costs.
 
All parties to this Indenture agree, and each Holder of any Security by his acceptance thereof shall be deemed to have agreed, that any court may in its discretion require, in any suit for the enforcement of any right or remedy under this Indenture, or in any suit against the Trustee for any action taken, suffered or omitted by it as Trustee, the filing by any party litigant in such suit of an undertaking to pay the costs of such suit, and that such court may in its discretion assess reasonable costs, including reasonable attorneys' fees, against any party litigant in such suit, having due regard to the merits and good faith of the claims or defenses made by such party litigant; but the provisions of this Section shall not apply to any suit instituted by the Company, to any suit instituted by the Trustee, to any suit instituted by any Holder, or group of Holders, holding in the aggregate more than [  ]% in principal amount of the outstanding Securities of any Series, or to any suit instituted by any Holder for the enforcement of the payment of the principal of or interest on any Security on or after the Stated Maturity or Stated Maturities expressed in such Security (or, in the case of redemption, on the redemption date).
 

28


 
ARTICLE VII

TRUSTEE
 
SECTION 7.01.          Duties of Trustee.
 
(a)          If an Event of Default has occurred and is continuing, the Trustee shall exercise the rights and powers vested in it by this Indenture and use the same degree of care and skill in their exercise as a prudent person would exercise or use under the circumstances in the conduct of his own affairs.
 
(b)          Except during the continuance of an Event of Default:
 
(i)          The Trustee  need perform only those duties that are specifically set forth in this Indenture and no implied duties, covenants or obligations shall be deemed to be imposed upon the Trustee.
 
(ii)          in the absence of bad faith on its part, the Trustee may conclusively rely, as to the truth of the statements and the correctness of the opinions expressed therein, upon Officers' Certificates or Opinions of Counsel furnished to the Trustee and conforming to the requirements of this Indenture; however, in the case of any such Officers' Certificates or Opinions of Counsel which by any provisions hereof are specifically required to be furnished to the Trustee, the Trustee shall examine such Officers' Certificates and Opinions of Counsel to determine whether or not they conform on their face to the requirements of this Indenture.
 
(c)          The Trustee may not be relieved from liability for its own its own negligent action, its own negligent failure to act or willful misconduct, except that:
 
(i)          This paragraph does not limit the effect of paragraph (b) of Section 7.01 herein.
 
(ii)         The Trustee shall not be liable for any error of judgment made in good faith by a Responsible Officer.
 
(iii)        The Trustee shall not be liable with respect to any action taken, suffered or omitted to be taken by it with respect to Securities of any Series in good faith in accordance with the direction of the Holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding Securities of such Series relating to the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the Trustee, or exercising any trust or power conferred upon the Trustee, under this Indenture with respect to the Securities of such Series.
 
(d)          Every provision of this Indenture that in any way relates to the Trustee is subject to paragraph (a), (b) and (c) of this Section.
 



 

29


 
(e)          The Trustee may refuse to perform any duty or exercise any right or power unless it receives an indemnity satisfactory to it against any loss, liability or expense.
 
(f)          The Trustee shall not be liable for interest on any money received by it except as the Trustee may agree in writing with the Company.  Money held in trust by the Trustee need not be segregated from other funds except to the extent required by law.
 
(g)          No provision of this Indenture shall require the Trustee to risk or expend its own funds or otherwise incur liability, financial or otherwise, in the performance of any of its duties, or in the exercise of any of its rights or powers, if it shall have reasonable grounds for believing that repayment of such funds or indemnity satisfactory to it against such risk is not reasonably assured to it.
 
(h)          The Paying Agent, the Registrar and any authenticating agent shall be entitled to the same rights, indemnities, protections and immunities afforded to the Trustee.
 
(i)          The Trustee shall have no duty to monitor the performance or compliance of the Company with its obligations hereunder or any under supplement hereto, nor shall it have any liability in connection with the malfeasance or nonfeasance by the Company.  The Trustee shall have no liability in connection with compliance by the Company with statutory or regulatory requirements related to this Indenture, any supplement or any Securities issued pursuant hereto or thereto.
 
SECTION 7.02.          Rights of Trustee.
 
(a)          The Trustee may conclusively rely on and shall be fully protected in acting or refraining from acting as a result of its reasonable belief that any resolution, certificate, statement, instrument, opinion, report, notice, request, consent, order, direction, approval or other paper or document was genuine and had been signed or presented by the proper person.  The Trustee need not investigate any fact or matter stated in the document, but the Trustee, in its discretion, may make such further inquiry or investigation into such facts or matters as it sees fit.
 
(b)          Before the Trustee acts or refrains from acting, it may require an Officers' Certificate or an Opinion of Counsel or both.  The Trustee shall not be liable for any action it takes or omits to take in good faith in reliance on such Officers' Certificate or Opinion of Counsel.
 
(c)          The Trustee may act through agents and shall not be responsible for the misconduct or negligence of, or for the supervision of, any agent appointed with due care.  No Depository shall be deemed an agent of the Trustee and the Trustee shall not be responsible for any act or omission by any Depository.
 
(d)          The Trustee shall not be liable for any action it takes or omits to take in good faith which it believes to be authorized or within its rights or powers.
 
(e)          The Trustee may consult with counsel of its selection and the advice of such counsel or any Opinion of Counsel shall be full and complete authorization and protection in respect of any action taken, suffered or omitted by it hereunder in good faith and in reliance thereon.
 

30


 
(f)          The Trustee shall be under no obligation to exercise any of the rights or powers vested in it by or pursuant to this Indenture at the request, order or direction of any of the Holders of Securities, unless such Holders shall have offered to the Trustee reasonable security or indemnity satisfactory to it against the costs, expenses and liabilities which might be incurred by it in compliance with such request or direction.
 
SECTION 7.03.          Individual Rights of Trustee.
 
The Trustee, in its individual or any other capacity, may become the owner or pledgee of Securities and may otherwise deal with the Company or an Affiliate with the same rights it would have if it were not Trustee.  Any Agent may do the same with like rights.  The Trustee is also subject to Sections 7.10 and 7.11.
 
SECTION 7.04.          Trustee's Disclaimer.
 
The Trustee makes no representation as to the validity or adequacy of this Indenture or the Securities and the recitals contained herein and in the Securities shall be taken as statements of the Company and not of the Trustee, and the Trustee has no responsibility for such recitals. The Trustee shall not be accountable for the Company's use or application of the proceeds from the Securities or for monies paid over to the Company pursuant to this Indenture, and it shall not be responsible for any statement in the Securities other than its authentication.
 
SECTION 7.05.          Notice of Defaults.
 
If a Default or Event of Default occurs and is continuing with respect to the Securities of any Series and if a Responsible Officer of the Trustee has knowledge or receives written notice of such event, the Trustee shall mail to each Securityholder of the Securities of that Series, notice of a Default or Event of Default within [  ] days after it occurs or, if later, after a Responsible Officer of the Trustee has actual knowledge of such Default or Event of Default.  Except in the case of a Default or Event of Default in payment of principal of or interest on any Security of any Series, including any additional interest that may become payable pursuant to Section 6.02(b), the Trustee may withhold the notice so long as the Trustee in good faith determines that withholding the notice is in the interests of Securityholders of that Series.
 
SECTION 7.06.          Reports by Trustee to Holders.
 
Within [  ] days after [          ] in each year, the Trustee shall transmit by mail to all Securityholders, as their names and addresses appear on the register kept by the Registrar, a brief report dated as of such [          ], in accordance with, and to the extent required under, TIA Section 313.
 
A copy of each report at the time of its mailing to Securityholders of any Series shall be filed with the SEC and each stock exchange on which the Securities of that Series are listed.  The Company shall promptly notify the Trustee when Securities of any Series are listed on any stock exchange.
 
 
 

31


 
SECTION 7.07.          Compensation and Indemnity.
 
The Company shall pay to the Trustee from time to time such compensation for its services as shall be agreed upon in writing.  The Trustee's compensation shall not be limited by any law on compensation of a trustee of an express trust.  The Company shall reimburse the Trustee upon request for all reasonable out-of-pocket expenses, disbursements and advances incurred by it.  Such expenses shall include the reasonable compensation and expenses of the Trustee's agents, counsel and other persons not regularly in its employ.
 
The Company shall indemnify, defend and hold harmless the Trustee and its officers, directors, employees, representatives and agents, from and against and reimburse the Trustee for any and all claims, expenses, obligations, liabilities, losses, damages, injuries (to person, property, or natural resources), penalties, stamp or other similar taxes, actions, suits, judgments, reasonable costs and expenses (including reasonable attorney's and agent's fees and expenses) of whatever kind or nature regardless of their merit, demanded, asserted or claimed against the Trustee directly or indirectly relating to, or arising from, claims against the Trustee by reason of its participation in the transactions contemplated hereby, including without limitation all reasonable costs required to be associated with claims for damages to persons or property, and reasonable attorneys' and consultants' fees and expenses and court costs except to the extent caused by the Trustee's negligence or willful misconduct.  The provisions of this Section 7.07 shall survive the termination of this Agreement or the earlier resignation or removal of the Trustee.  The Company shall defend any claim and the Trustee shall cooperate in the defense.  The Trustee may have separate counsel and the Company shall pay the reasonable fees and expenses of such counsel.  The Company need not pay for any settlement made without its consent, which consent shall not be unreasonably withheld or delayed.  This indemnification shall apply to officers, directors, employees, shareholders and agents of the Trustee.
 
The Company need not reimburse any expense or indemnify against any loss liability incurred by the Trustee or by any officer, director, employee, shareholder or agent of the Trustee through negligence or bad faith.
 
To secure the Company's payment obligations in this Section, the Trustee shall have a lien prior to the Securities of any Series on all money or property held or collected by the Trustee, except that held in trust to pay principal and interest on particular Securities of that Series.
 
When the Trustee incurs expenses or renders services after an Event of Default specified in Section 6.01(f) or (g) occurs, the expenses and the compensation for the services are intended to constitute expenses of administration under any Bankruptcy Law.
 
SECTION 7.08.          Replacement of Trustee.
 
A resignation or removal of the Trustee and appointment of a successor Trustee shall become effective only upon the successor Trustee's acceptance of appointment as provided in this Section.
 
The Trustee may resign with respect to the Securities of one or more Series by so notifying the Company.  The Holders of a majority in principal amount of the Securities of any Series may remove the Trustee with respect to that Series by so notifying the Trustee and the Company.  The Company may remove the Trustee with respect to Securities of one or more Series if:
 

32


 
(a)          the Trustee fails to comply with Section 7.10;
 
(b)          the Trustee is adjudged a bankrupt or an insolvent or an order for relief is entered with respect to the Trustee under any Bankruptcy Law;
 
(c)          a Custodian or public officer takes charge of the Trustee or its property; or
 
(d)          the Trustee becomes incapable of acting.
 
If the Trustee resigns or is removed or if a vacancy exists in the office of Trustee for any reason, the Company shall promptly appoint a successor Trustee.  Within one year after the successor Trustee takes office, the Holders of a majority in principal amount of the then outstanding Securities may appoint a successor Trustee to replace the successor Trustee appointed by the Company.
 
If a successor Trustee with respect to the Securities of any one or more Series does not take office within [  ] days after the retiring Trustee resigns or is removed, the retiring Trustee, the Company or the Holders of at least [  ]% in principal amount of the Securities of the applicable Series may petition any court of competent jurisdiction for the appointment of a successor Trustee.
 
A successor Trustee shall deliver a written acceptance of its appointment to the retiring Trustee and to the Company.  Immediately after that, the retiring Trustee shall transfer all property held by it as Trustee to the successor Trustee subject to the lien provided for in Section 7.07, and subject to the payment of any and all amounts then due and owing to the retiring Trustee, the resignation or removal of the retiring Trustee shall become effective, and the successor Trustee shall have all the rights, powers and duties of the Trustee with respect to each Series of Securities for which it is acting as Trustee under this Indenture.  A successor Trustee shall mail a notice of its succession to each Securityholder of each such Series.  Notwithstanding replacement of the Trustee pursuant to this Section 7.08, the Company's obligations under Section 7.07 hereof shall continue for the benefit of the retiring trustee with respect to expenses and liabilities incurred by it prior to such replacement.
 
SECTION 7.09.          Successor Trustee by Merger, etc.
 
If the Trustee consolidates with, merges or converts into, or transfers all or substantially all of its corporate trust business to, another corporation, the successor corporation without any further act shall be the successor Trustee with the same effect as if the successor Trustee had been named as the Trustee herein.
 
SECTION 7.10.          Eligibility; Disqualification.
 
This Indenture shall always have a Trustee who satisfies the requirements of TIA Section 310(a)(1), (2) and (5).  The Trustee shall always have a combined capital and surplus of at least $25,000,000 as set forth in its most recent published annual report of condition.  The Trustee shall comply with TIA Section 310(b).
 
 

33


 
SECTION 7.11.          Preferential Collection of Claims Against Company.
 
The Trustee is subject to TIA Section 311(a), excluding any creditor relationship listed in TIA Section 311(b).  A Trustee who has resigned or been removed shall be subject to TTA Section 311(a) to the extent indicated.
 

ARTICLE VIII

SATISFACTION AND DISCHARGE; DEFEASANCE
 
SECTION 8.01.          Satisfaction and Discharge of Indenture.
 
This Indenture shall upon Company Order cease to be of further effect (except as hereinafter provided in this Section 8.01), and the Trustee, on the demand of and at the expense of the Company, shall execute proper instruments acknowledging satisfaction and discharge of this Indenture, when
 
(a)          either
 
(i)          all Securities theretofore authenticated and delivered (other than Securities that have been destroyed, lost or stolen and that have been replaced or paid) have been delivered to the Trustee for cancellation; or
 
(ii)          all such Securities not theretofore delivered to the Trustee for cancellation have become due and payable, or
 
(1)          have become due and payable, or
 
(2)          will become due and payable at their Stated Maturity within [          ], or
 
(3)          are to be called for redemption within [          ] under arrangements satisfactory to the Trustee for the giving of notice of redemption by the Trustee in the name, and at the expense, of the Company, or
 
(4)          are deemed paid and discharged pursuant to section 8.03, as applicable; and the Company, in the case of (1), (2) or (3) above, has deposited or caused to be deposited with the Trustee as trust funds in trust an amount sufficient for the purpose of paying and discharging the entire indebtedness on such Securities not theretofore delivered to the Trustee for cancellation, for principal and interest to the date of such deposit (in the case of Securities which have become due and payable on or prior to the date of such deposit) or to the Stated Maturity or redemption date, as the case may be;
 

34


 
(b)          the Company has paid or caused to be paid all other sums payable hereunder by the Company; and
 
(c)          the Company has delivered to the Trustee an Officers' Certificate and an Opinion of Counsel, each meeting the applicable requirements of Sections 10.04 and 10.05 and each stating that all conditions precedent herein relating to the satisfaction and discharge of this Indenture have been complied with and the Trustee receives written demand from the Company to discharge.
 
Notwithstanding the satisfaction and discharge of this Indenture, the obligations of the Company to the Trustee under Section 7.07, and, if money shall have been deposited with the Trustee pursuant to clause (a) of this Section, the provisions of Sections 2.04, 2.07, 2.08, 8.01 8.02 and 8.05 shall survive.
 
SECTION 8.02.          Application of Trust Funds; Indemnification.
 
(a)          Subject to the provisions of Section 8.05, all money deposited with the Trustee pursuant to Section 8.01, all money and U.S. Government Obligations or Foreign Government Obligations deposited with the Trustee pursuant to Section 8.03 or 8.04 and all money received by the Trustee in respect of U.S. Government Obligations or Foreign Government Obligations deposited with the Trustee pursuant to Section 8.03 or 8.04, shall be held in trust and applied by it, in accordance with the provisions of the Securities and this Indenture, to the payment, either directly or through any Paying Agent (including the Company acting as its own Paying Agent) as the Trustee may determine, to the persons entitled thereto, of the principal and interest for whose payment such money has been deposited with or received by the Trustee or to make mandatory sinking fund payments or analogous payments as contemplated by Sections 8.03 or 8.04.
 
(b)          The Company shall pay and shall indemnify the Trustee and the Agents against any tax, fee or other charge imposed on or assessed against U.S. Government Obligations or Foreign Government Obligations deposited pursuant to Sections 8.03 or 8.04 or the interest and principal received in respect of such obligations other than any payable by or on behalf of Holders.
 
(c)          The Trustee shall, in accordance with the terms of this Indenture, deliver or pay to the Company from time to time, upon Company Request and at the expense of the Company any U.S. Government Obligations or Foreign Government Obligations or money held by it pursuant to this Indenture as provided in Sections 8.03 or 8.04 which, in the opinion of a nationally recognized firm of independent certified public accountants, expressed in a written certification thereof and delivered to the Trustee together with such Company Request, are then in excess of the amount thereof which then would have been required to be deposited for the purpose for which such U.S. Government Obligations or Foreign Government Obligations or money were deposited or received.  This provision shall not authorize the sale by the Trustee of any U.S. Government Obligations or Foreign Government Obligations held under this Indenture.
 

35


 
SECTION 8.03.          Legal Defeasance of Securities of any Series.
 
Unless this Section 8.03 is otherwise specified, pursuant to Section 2.02(s), to be inapplicable to Securities of any Series, the Company shall be deemed to have paid and discharged the entire indebtedness on all the outstanding Securities of such Series on the [   ] day after the date of the deposit referred to in subparagraph (d) hereof, and the provisions of this Indenture, as it relates to such outstanding Securities of such Series, shall no longer be in effect (and the Trustee, at the expense of the company, shall, at Company Request, execute proper instruments acknowledging the same), except as to:
 
(a)          the rights of Holders of Securities of such Series to receive, from the trust funds described in subparagraph (d) hereof, (i) payment of the principal of and each installment of principal of and interest on the outstanding Securities of such Series on the Stated Maturity of such principal or installment of principal or interest and (ii) the benefit of any mandatory sinking fund payments applicable to the Securities of such Series on the day on which such payments are due and payable in accordance with the terms of this Indenture and the Securities of such Series;
 
(b)          the provisions of Sections 2.04, 2.07, 2.08, 2.14, 8.02, 8.03 and 8.05; and
 
(c)          the rights, powers, trust and immunities of the Trustee hereunder; provided that, the following conditions shall have been satisfied:
 
(d)          the Company shall have deposited or caused to be deposited irrevocably with the Paying Agent as trust funds in trust for the purpose of making the following payments, specifically pledged as security for and dedicated solely to the benefit of the Holders of such Securities in the case of Securities of such Series denominated in Dollars, cash in Dollars (or such other money or currencies as shall then be legal tender in the United States) and/or U.S. Government Obligations, or (ii) in the case of Securities of such Series denominated in a Foreign Currency (other than a composite currency), money and/or Foreign Government Obligations, which through the payment of interest and principal in respect thereof, in accordance with their terms, will provide (and without reinvestment and assuming no tax liability will be imposed on such Paying Agent), not later than [   ] day before the due date of any payment of money, an amount in cash, sufficient, in the opinion of a nationally recognized firm of independent public accountants expressed in a written certification thereof delivered to the Trustee and the Paying Agent, to pay and discharge each installment of principal (including mandatory sinking fund or analogous payments) of and interest, if any, on all the Securities of such Series on the dates such installments of interest or principal are due;
 
(e)          such deposit will not result in a breach or violation of, or constitute a default under, this Indenture or any other agreement or instrument to which the Company is a party or by which it is bound;
 
(f)          no Default or Event of Default with respect to the Securities of such Series shall have occurred and be continuing on the date of such deposit or during the period ending on the [    ] day after such date;
 
 

36


 
(g)          the Company shall have delivered to the Trustee an Officers' Certificate and an Opinion of Counsel to the effect that (i) the Company has received from, or there has been published by, the Internal Revenue Service a ruling, or (ii) since the date of execution of this Indenture, there has been a change in the applicable Federal income tax law, in either case to the effect that, and based thereon such Opinion of Counsel shall confirm that, the Holders of the Securities of such Series will not recognize income, gain or loss for Federal income tax purposes as a result of such deposit, defeasance and discharge and will be subject to Federal income tax on the same amount and in the same manner and at the same times as would have been the case if such deposit, defeasance and discharge had not occurred;
 
(h)          the Company shall have delivered to the Trustee an Officers' Certificate stating that the deposit was not made by the Company with the intent of preferring the Holders of the Securities of such Series over any other creditors of the company or with the intent of defeating, hindering, delaying or defrauding any other creditors of the Company;
 
(i)          such deposit shall not result in the trust arising from such deposit constituting an investment company (as defined in the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended), or such trust shall be qualified under such Act or exempt from regulation thereunder; and
 
(j)          the Company shall have delivered to the Trustee an Officers' Certificate and an Opinion of Counsel, each stating that all conditions precedent provided for relating to the defeasance contemplated by this Section have been complied with.
 
SECTION 8.04.          Covenant Defeasance.
 
Unless this Section 8.04 is otherwise specified pursuant to Section 2.02(s) to be inapplicable to Securities of any Series, on and after the [    ] day after the date of the deposit referred to in subparagraph (a) hereof, the Company may omit to comply with any term, provision or condition set forth under Sections 4.02, 4.03, 4.04, 4.05, 4.06, and 5.01 as well as any additional covenants contained in a supplemental indenture hereto for a particular Series of Securities or a Board Resolution or an Officers' Certificate delivered pursuant to Section 2.02(s) (and the failure to comply with any such covenants shall not constitute a Default or Event of Default under Section 6.01) and the occurrence of any event described in clause (e) of Section 6.01 shall not constitute a Default or Event of Default hereunder, with respect to the Securities of such Series, provided that the following conditions shall have been satisfied:
 
(a)          With reference to this Section 8.04, the Company has deposited or caused to be irrevocably deposited (except as provided in Section 8.02(c)) with the Paying Agent as trust funds in trust, specifically pledged as security for, and dedicated solely to, the benefit of the Holders of such Securities (i) in the case of Securities of such Series denominated in Dollars, cash in Dollars (or such other money or currencies as shall then be legal tender in the United States) and/or U.S. Government Obligations, or (ii) in the case of Securities of such Series denominated in a Foreign Currency (other than a composite currency), money and/or Foreign Government Obligations, which through the payment of interest and principal in respect thereof, in accordance with their terms, will provide (and without reinvestment and assuming no tax liability will be imposed on such Paying Agent), not later than [   ] day before the due date of any payment of money, an amount in cash, sufficient, in the opinion of a nationally recognized firm of independent certified public accountants expressed in a written certification thereof delivered to the Paying Agent, to pay principal and interest, if any, on and any mandatory sinking fund in respect of the Securities of such Series on the dates such installments of interest or principal are due;
 
 
 

37


 
(b)          Such deposit will not result in a breach or violation of, or constitute a default under, this Indenture or any other agreement or instrument to which the Company is a party or by which it is bound;
 
(c)          No Default or Event of Default with respect to the Securities of such Series shall have occurred and be continuing on the date of such deposit or during the period ending on the [    ] day after such date;
 
(d)          the company shall have delivered to the Trustee an Opinion of Counsel confirming that Holders of the Securities of such Series will not recognize income, gain or loss for federal income tax purposes as a result of such deposit and defeasance and will be subject to federal income tax on the same amounts, in the same manner and at the same times as would have been the case if such deposit and defeasance had not occurred;
 
(e)          the Company shall have delivered to the Trustee an Officers' Certificate stating the deposit was not made by the Company with the intent of preferring the Holders of the Securities of such Series over any other creditors of the Company or with the intent of defeating, hindering, delaying or defrauding any other creditors of the Company; and
 
(f)          The Company shall have delivered to the Trustee an Officers' Certificate and an Opinion of Counsel, each stating that all conditions precedent herein provided for relating to the defeasance contemplated by this Section have been complied with.
 
SECTION 8.05.          Repayment to Company.
 
The Paying Agent shall pay to the Company upon request any money held by them for the payment of principal and interest that remains unclaimed for two years.  After that, Securityholders entitled to the money must look to the Company for payment as general creditors unless an applicable abandoned property law designates another person and all liability of the Paying Agent with respect to that money shall cease.
 

ARTICLE IX

AMENDMENTS AND WAIVERS
 
SECTION 9.01.          Without Consent of Holders.
 
The Company and the Trustee may amend or supplement this Indenture or the Securities of one or more Series without the consent of any Securityholder:
 
(a)          to cure any ambiguity, defect or inconsistency;
 
(b)          to comply with Article V;
 
 
 

38


 
(c)          to provide for uncertificated Securities in addition to or in place of certificated Securities;
 
(d)          to make any change that does not adversely affect the rights of any Securityholder;
 
(e)          to provide for the issuance of and establish the form and terms and conditions of Securities of any Series as permitted by this Indenture;
 
(f)          to evidence and provide for the acceptance of appointment hereunder by a successor Trustee with respect to the Securities of one or more Series and to add to or change any of the provisions of this Indenture as shall be necessary to provide for or facilitate the administration of the trusts hereunder by more than one Trustee;
 
(g)          to comply with requirements of the TIA and any rules promulgated under the TIA; and
 
(h)          to add to the covenants of the Company for the equal and ratable benefit of the Holders or to surrender any right, power or option conferred upon the Company.
 
Any amendment or supplement made solely to conform the provisions of this Indenture or the Securities of any Series to the description thereof contained in the final prospectus relating to such Series will be deemed not to adversely affect the rights of any Holder.
 
SECTION 9.02.          With Consent of Holders.
 
The Company and the Trustee may enter into a supplemental indenture with the written consent of the Holders of at least a majority in principal amount of the outstanding Securities of all Series affected by such supplemental indenture, taken together as one class (including consents obtained in connection with a tender offer or exchange offer for the Securities of such Series), for the purpose of adding any provisions to or changing in any manner or eliminating any of the provisions of this Indenture or of any supplemental indenture or of modifying in any manner the rights of the Securityholders of each such Series.  Except as provided in Section 6.13, the Holders of at least a majority in principal amount of the outstanding Securities of all Series affected by such waiver by notice to the Trustee, taken together as one class (including consents obtained in connection with a tender offer or exchange offer for the Securities of such Series) may waive compliance by the Company with any provision of this Indenture or the Securities with respect to such Series.
 
It shall not be necessary for the consent of the Holders of Securities under this Section 9.02 to approve the particular form of any proposed supplemental indenture or waiver, but it shall be sufficient if such consent approves the substance thereof.  After a supplemental indenture or waiver under this section becomes effective, the Company shall mail to the Holders of Securities affected thereby a notice briefly describing the supplemental indenture or waiver.  Any failure by the Company to mail or publish such notice, or any defect therein, shall not, however, in any way impair or affect the validity of any such supplemental indenture or waiver.
 
 

39


 
SECTION 9.03.          Limitations.
 
Without the consent of each Securityholder affected, an amendment or waiver may not:
 
(a)          change the amount of Securities whose Holders must consent to an amendment, supplement or waiver, except to increase any such amount or to provide that certain provisions of this Indenture cannot be modified, amended or waived without the consent of the Holder of each outstanding Security affected thereby;
 
(b)          reduce the amount of interest, or change the interest payment time, on any Security;
 
(c)          waive a redemption payment or alter the redemption provisions (other than any alteration that would not materially adversely affect the legal rights of any Holder under this Indenture) or the price at which the Company is required to offer to purchase the Securities;
 
(d)          reduce the principal or change the Stated Maturity of any Security or reduce the amount of, or postpone the date fixed for, the payment of any sinking fund or analogous obligation;
 
(e)          reduce the principal amount payable of any Security upon Maturity;
 
(f)           waive a Default or Event of Default in the payment of the principal of or interest, if any, on any Security (except a rescission of acceleration of the Securities of any Series by the Holders of at least a majority in principal amount of the outstanding Securities of such Series and a waiver of the payment default that resulted from such acceleration);
 
(g)          change the place or currency of payment of principal of or interest, if any, on any Security other than that stated in the Security;
 
(h)          impair the right of any Holder to receive payment of principal or, or interest on, the Securities of such Holder on or after the due dates therefor;
 
(i)           impair the right to institute suit for the enforcement of any payment on, or with respect to, any Security;
 
(j)           make any change in Sections 10.15 or 10.16;
 
(k)          change the ranking of the Securities; or
 
(l)           make any other change which is specified in a Board Resolution, a supplemental indenture hereto or an Officers' Certificate as a limitation under this Section.
 
SECTION 9.04.          Compliance with Trust Indenture Act.
 
Every amendment to this Indenture or the Securities of one or more Series shall be set forth in a supplemental indenture hereto that complies with the TIA as then in effect.
 
 
 

40


 
SECTION 9.05.          Revocation and Effect of Consents.
 
Until an amendment or waiver becomes effective, a consent to it by a Holder of a Security is a continuing consent by the Holder and every subsequent Holder of a Security or portion of a Security that evidences the same debt as the consenting Holder's Security, even if notation of the consent is not made on any Security.  However, any such Holder or subsequent Holder may revoke the consent as to his Security or portion of a Security if the Trustee receives the notice of revocation before the date the amendment or waiver becomes effective.
 
Any amendment or waiver once effective shall bind every Securityholder of each Series affected by such amendment or waiver unless it is of the type described in any of clauses (a) through (g) of Section 9.03 in that case, the amendment or waiver shall bind each Holder of a Security who has consented to it and every subsequent Holder of a Security or portion of a Security that evidences the same debt as the consenting Holder's Security.
 
SECTION 9.06.          Notation on or Exchange of Securities.
 
If an amendment, supplement or waiver changes the terms of a Security, the Trustee may require the Holder of the Security to deliver it to the Trustee and the Trustee may place an appropriate notation on the Security about the changed terms and return it to the Holder.  Alternatively, if the Company or the Trustee so determines, the Company shall issue and the Trustee shall authenticate upon request new Securities of that Series that reflect the changed terms.
 
SECTION 9.07.          Trustee Protected.
 
In executing, or accepting the additional trusts created by, any supplemental indenture permitted by this Article or the modifications thereby of the trusts created by this Indenture, the Trustee shall be entitled to receive, and (subject to Section 7.01) shall be fully protected in relying upon, an Opinion of Counsel or an Officer's Certificate, or both stating that the execution of such supplemental indenture is authorized or permitted by this Indenture.  The Trustee shall sign all supplemental indentures, except that the Trustee need not sign any supplemental indenture that adversely affects its rights, duties or indemnities.
 
SECTION 9.08.          Effect of Supplemental Indenture.
 
Upon the execution of any supplemental indenture under this Article, this Indenture shall be modified in accordance therewith, and each such supplemental indenture shall form part of this Indenture for all purposes with respect to the relevant Series; and every Holder of Securities of the relevant Series theretofore or thereafter authenticated and delivered hereunder shall be bound thereby.
 

 
 

41


 
ARTICLE X


MISCELLANEOUS
 
SECTION 10.01.          Trust Indenture Act Controls.
 

If any provision of this Indenture limits, qualifies, or conflicts with another provision which is required or deemed to be included in this Indenture by the TIA, such required or deemed provision shall control.
 
SECTION 10.02.          Notices.
 
Any notice or communication by the Company, the Trustee, the Paying Agent or the Registrar to another is duly given if in writing and delivered in person or mailed by first-class mail:
 
if to the Company:
 
[          ]
Attn: [          ]
Fax: [            ]
 

if to the Trustee:
 
[          ]
Attn: [          ]
Fax: [            ]
 
if to the Registrar or Paying Agent:
 
[          ]
Attn: [          ]
Fax: [            ]

with copy to:

[          ]
Attn: [          ]
Fax: [            ]

The Company, the Trustee and each Agent by notice to each other may designate additional or different addresses for subsequent notices or communications.
 

42


 
Any notice or communication to a Securityholder shall be mailed by first-class mail to his address shown on the register kept by the Registrar.  Failure to mail a notice or communication to a Securityholder of any Series or any defect in it shall not affect its sufficiency with respect to other Securityholders of that or any other Series.
 
If a notice or communication is mailed or published in the manner provided above, within the time prescribed, it is duly given, whether or not the Securityholder receives it.
 
If the company mails a notice or communication to Securityholders, it will mail a copy to the Trustee and each Agent at the same time.
 
Whenever a notice is required to be given by the Company, such notice may be given by the Trustee or Registrar on the Company's behalf (and the Company will make any notice it is required to give to Holders available on its website).
 
SECTION 10.03.          Communication by Holders with Other Holders.
 
Securityholders of any Series may communicate pursuant to TIA Section 312(b) with other Securityholders of that Series or any other Series with respect to their rights under this Indenture or the Securities of that Series or all Series.  The Company, the Trustee, the Registrar and anyone else shall have the protection of TIA Section 312(c).
 
SECTION 10.04.          Certificate and Opinion as to Conditions Precedent.
 
Upon any request or application by the Company to the Trustee to take any action under this Indenture, the Company shall furnish to the Trustee:
 
(a)          an Officers' Certificate stating that, in the opinion of the signers, all conditions precedent, if any, provided for in this Indenture relating to the proposed action have been complied with; and
 
(b)          an Opinion of Counsel stating that, in the opinion of counsel, all such conditions precedent (including any covenants, compliance with which constitutes a condition precedent) have been complied with.
 
SECTION 10.05.          Statements Required in Certificate or Opinion.
 
Each certificate or opinion with respect to compliance with a condition or covenant provided for in this Indenture (other than a certificate provided pursuant to TIA Section 314(a)(4)) shall comply with the provisions of TIA Section 314(e) and shall include:
 
(a)          a statement that the person making such certificate or opinion has read such covenant or condition;
 
(b)          a brief statement as to the nature and scope of the examination or investigation  upon which the statements or opinions  contained in such certificate or opinion are based;
 
 

43


 
(c)          a statement that, in the opinion of such person, he has made such examination or investigation as is necessary to enable him to express an informed opinion as to whether or not such covenant or condition has been complied with; and
 
(d)          a statement as to whether or not, in the opinion of such person, such condition or covenant has been complied with.
 
provided, however, that with respect to matters of fact an Opinion of Counsel may rely on an Officers' Certificate or certificates of public officials.
 
SECTION 10.06.          Record Date for Vote or Consent of Holders.
 
The Company (or, in the event deposits have been made pursuant to Section 11.02, the Trustee) may set a record date for purposes of determining the identity of Holders entitled to vote or consent to any action by vote or consent authorized or permitted under this Indenture, which record date shall not be more than [  ] days prior to the date of the commencement of solicitation of such action.  Notwithstanding the provisions of Section 9.05, if a record date is fixed, those persons who were Holders of Securities at the close of business on such record date (or their duly designated proxies), and only those persons, shall be entitled to take such action by vote or consent or to revoke any vote or consent previously given, whether or not such persons continue to be Holders after such record date.
 
SECTION 10.07.          Rules by Trustee and Agents.
 
The Trustee may make reasonable rules for action by or a meeting of Securityholders of one or more Series.  Any Agent may make reasonable rules and set reasonable requirements for its functions.
 
SECTION 10.08.          Legal Holidays.
 
Unless otherwise provided by Board Resolution, Officers' Certificate or supplemental indenture for a particular Series, a "Legal Holiday" is any day that is not a Business Day.  If a payment date is a Legal Holiday at a place of payment, payment may be made at that place on the next succeeding day that is not a Legal Holiday, and no interest shall accrue for the intervening period.
 
SECTION 10.09.          No Recourse Against Others.
 
A director, officer, employee or stockholder, as such, of the Company shall not have any liability for any obligations of the Company under the Securities or the Indenture or for any claim based on, in respect of or by reason of such obligations or their creation.  Each Securityholder by accepting a Security waives and releases all such liability.  The waiver and release are part of the consideration for the issue of the Securities.
 
SECTION 10.10.          Counterparts.
 
 
 

44


 
This Indenture may be executed in any number of counterparts and by the parties hereto in separate counterparts, each of which when so executed shall be deemed to be an original and all of which taken together shall constitute one and the same agreement.
 
SECTION 10.11.          Governing Laws and Submission to Jurisdiction.
 
THIS INDENTURE AND THE SECURITIES SHALL BE GOVERNED BY THE LAWS OF THE STATE OF NEW YORK EXCLUDING ANY RULE OF LAW THAT WOULD CAUSE THE APPLICATION OF THE LAWS OF ANY JURISDICTION OTHER THAN THE STATE OF NEW YORK.
 
The Company agrees that any legal suit, action or proceeding arising out of or based upon this Indenture may be instituted in any federal or state court sitting in New York City, and, to the fullest extent permitted by law, waives any objection which it may now or hereafter have to the laying of venue of any such proceeding, and irrevocably submits to the non-exclusive jurisdiction of such court in any suit, action or proceeding.  The Company, as long as any Securities remain outstanding or the parties hereto have any obligation under this Indenture, shall have an authorized agent in the United States upon whom process may be served in any such legal action or proceeding. Service of process upon such agent and written notice of such service mailed or delivered to it shall to the extent permitted by law be deemed in every respect effective service of process upon it in any such legal action or proceeding and, if it fails to maintain such agent, any such process or summons may be served by mailing a copy thereof by registered mail, or a form of mail substantially equivalent thereto, addressed to it at its address as provided for notices hereunder. The Company hereby appoints Seward & Kissel LLP, One Battery Park Plaza, New York, NY,  10004, as its agent for such purposes, and covenants and agrees that service of process in any legal action or proceeding may be made upon it at such office of such agent.

SECTION 10.12.          No Adverse Interpretation of Other Agreements.
 
This Indenture may not be used to interpret another indenture, loan or debt agreement of the Company or a Subsidiary.  Any such indenture, loan or debt agreement may not be used to interpret this Indenture.
 
SECTION 10.13.          Successors.
 
All agreements of the Company in this Indenture and the Securities shall bind its successor.  All agreements of the Trustee in this Indenture shall bind its successor.
 
SECTION 10.14.          Severability.
 
In case any provision in this Indenture or in the Securities shall be invalid, illegal or unenforceable, the validity, legality and enforceability of the remaining provisions shall not in any way be affected or impaired thereby.
 
SECTION 10.15.          Table of Contents, Headings, Etc.

 
 

45


 
The Table of Contents, Cross Reference Table, and headings of the Articles and Sections of this Indenture have been inserted for convenience of reference only, are not to be considered a part hereof, and shall in no way modify or restrict any of the terms or provisions hereof.
 
SECTION 10.16.          Securities in a Foreign Currency or in ECU.
 
Unless otherwise specified in a Board Resolution, a supplemental indenture hereto or an Officers' Certificate delivered pursuant to Section 2.02 of this Indenture with respect to a particular Series of Securities, whenever for purposes of this Indenture any action may be taken by the Holders of a specified percentage in aggregate principal amount of Securities of all Series or all Series affected by a particular action at the time outstanding and, at such time, there are outstanding Securities of any Series which are denominated in a coin or currency other than Dollars (including ECUs), then the principal amount of Securities of such Series which shall be deemed to be outstanding for the purpose of taking such action shall be that amount of Dollars that could be obtained for such amount at the Market Exchange Rate at such time.  For purposes of this Section 10.16, "Market Exchange Rate" shall mean the noon Dollar buying rate in New York City for cable transfers of that currency as published by the Federal Reserve Bank of New York; provided, however, in the case of ECUs, Market Exchange Rate shall mean the rate of exchange determined by the Commission of the European Union (or any successor thereto) as published in the Official Journal of the European Union (such publication or any successor publication, the "Journal").  If such Market Exchange Rate is not available for any reason with respect to such currency, the Trustee shall use, without liability on its part, such quotation of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York or, in the case of ECUs, the rate of exchange as published in the Journal, as of the most recent available date, or quotations or, in the case of ECUs, rates of exchange from one or more major banks in The City of New York or in the country of issue of the currency in question or, in the case of ECUs, in Luxembourg or such other quotations or, in the case of ECUs, rates of exchange as the Trustee, upon consultation with the Company, shall deem appropriate.  The provisions of this paragraph shall apply in determining the equivalent principal amount in respect of Securities of a Series denominated in currency other than Dollars in connection with any action taken by Holders of Securities pursuant to the terms of this Indenture.
 
All decisions and determinations of the Trustee regarding the Market Exchange Rate or any alternative determination provided for in the preceding paragraph shall be in its sole discretion and shall, in the absence of manifest error, be conclusive to the extent permitted by law for all purposes and irrevocably binding upon the Company and all Holders.
 
SECTION 10.17.          Judgment Currency.
 
The Company agrees, to the fullest extent that it may effectively do so under applicable law, that (a) if for the purpose of obtaining judgment in any court it is necessary to convert the sum due in respect of the principal of or interest or other amount on the Securities of any Series (the "Required Currency") into a currency in which a judgment will be rendered (the "Judgment Currency"), the rate of exchange used shall be the rate at which in accordance with normal banking procedures the Trustee could purchase in The City of New York the Required Currency with the Judgment Currency on the day on which final unappealable judgment is entered, unless such day is not a New York Banking Day, then, the rate of exchange used shall be the rate at which in accordance with normal banking procedures the Trustee could purchase in

46

The City of New York the Required Currency with the Judgment Currency on the New York Banking Day preceding the day on which final unappealable judgment is entered and (b) its obligations under this Indenture to make payments in the Required Currency (i) shall not be discharged or satisfied by any tender, any recovery pursuant to any judgment (whether or not entered in accordance with subsection (a)), in any currency other than the Required Currency, except to the extent that such tender or recovery shall result in the actual receipt, by the payee, of the full amount of the Required Currency expressed to be payable in respect of such payments, (ii) shall be enforceable as an alternative or additional cause of action for the purpose of recovering in the Required Currency the amount, if any, by which such actual receipt shall fall short of the full amount of the Required Currency so expressed to be payable, and (iii) shall not be affected by judgment being obtained for any other sum due under this Indenture.  For purposes of the foregoing, "New York Banking Day" means any day except a Saturday, Sunday or a legal holiday in The City of New York on which banking institutions are authorized or required by law, regulation or executive order to close.
 
SECTION 10.18.
Compliance with Applicable Anti-Terrorism and Money Laundering Regulations.
 
In order to comply with the laws, rules, regulations and executive orders in effect from time to time applicable to banking institutions, including those relating to the funding of terrorist activities and money laundering ("Applicable Law"), the Trustee is required to obtain, verify and record certain information relating to individuals and entities which maintain a business relationship with the Trustee.  Accordingly, each of the parties agree to provide to the Trustee, upon its request from time to time such identifying information and documentation as may be available for such party in order to enable the Trustee to comply with the Applicable Law.
 
ARTICLE XI

SINKING FUNDS
 
SECTION 11.01.          Applicability of Article.
 
The provisions of this Article shall be applicable to any sinking fund for the retirement of the Securities of a Series, except as otherwise permitted or required by any form of Security of such Series issued pursuant to this Indenture.
 
The minimum amount of any sinking fund payment provided for by the terms of the Securities of any Series is herein referred to as a "mandatory sinking fund payment" and any other amount provided for by the terms of Securities of such Series is herein referred to as an "optional sinking fund payment." If provided for by the terms of Securities of any Series, the cash amount of any sinking fund payment may be subject to reduction as provided in Section 11.02.  Each sinking fund payment shall be applied to the redemption of Securities of any Series as provided for by the terms of the securities of such Series.
 
 
 

47


 
SECTION 11.02.          Satisfaction of Sinking Fund Payments with Securities.
 
The Company may, in satisfaction of all or any part of any sinking fund payment with respect to the Securities of any Series to be made pursuant to the terms of such Securities (1) deliver outstanding Securities of such Series to which such sinking fund payment is applicable (other than any of such Securities previously called for mandatory sinking fund redemption) and (2) apply as credit Securities of such Series to which such sinking fund payment is applicable and which have been redeemed either at the election of the Company pursuant to the terms of such Series of Securities (except pursuant to any mandatory sinking fund) or through the application of permitted optional sinking fund payments or other optional redemptions pursuant to the terms of such Securities, provided that such Securities have not been previously so credited.  Such Securities shall be received by the Registrar, together with an Officers' Certificate with respect thereto, not later than [  ] days prior to the date on which the Registrar begins the process of selecting Securities for redemption, and shall be credited for such purpose by the Registrar at the price specified in such Securities for redemption through operation of the sinking fund and the amount of such sinking fund payment shall be reduced accordingly.  If as a result of the delivery or credit of Securities in lieu of cash payments pursuant to this Section 11.02, the principal amount of Securities of such Series to be redeemed in order to exhaust the aforesaid cash payment shall be less than $[], the Registrar need not call Securities of such Series for redemption, except upon receipt of a Company Order that such action be taken, and such cash payment shall be held by the Paying Agent and applied to the next succeeding sinking fund payment, provided, however, that the Paying Agent shall from time to time upon receipt of a Company Order pay over and deliver to the Company any cash payment so being held by the Paying Agent upon delivery by the Company to the Registrar of Securities of that Series purchased by the Company having an unpaid principal amount equal to the cash payment required to be released to the Company.
 
SECTION 11.03.          Redemption of Securities for Sinking Fund.
 
Not less than [  ] days (unless otherwise indicated in the Board Resolution, supplemental indenture hereto or Officers' Certificate in respect of a particular Series of Securities) prior to each sinking fund payment date for any Series of Securities, the Company will deliver to the Trustee and the Paying Agent an Officers' Certificate specifying the amount of the next ensuing mandatory sinking fund payment for that Series pursuant to the terms of that Series, the portion thereof, if any, which is to be satisfied by payment of cash and the portion thereof, if any, which is to be satisfied by delivering and crediting of Securities of that Series pursuant to Section 11.02., and the optional amount, if any, to be added in cash to the next ensuing mandatory sinking fund payment, and the Company shall thereupon be obligated to pay the amount therein specified.  Not less than [  ] days (unless otherwise indicated in the Board Resolution, Officers' Certificate or supplemental indenture in respect of a particular Series of Securities) before each such sinking fund payment date the Trustee shall select the Securities to be redeemed upon such sinking fund payment date in the manner specified in Section 3.02 and cause notice of the redemption thereof to be given in the name of and at the expense of the Company in the manner provided in Section 3.03.  Such notice having been duly given, the redemption of such Securities shall stated in Sections 3.04, 3.05 and 3.06.
 
[The remainder of this page is intentionally left blank]
 

 

48

IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the parties hereto have caused this Indenture to be duly executed as of the day and year first above written.
 




SCORPIO BULKERS INC.


By:__________________________

Name:
Its:


[          ]
as Trustee

By:__________________________

Name:
Its:


By:__________________________

Name:
Its:


[          ]
as Registrar and Paying Agent


By:__________________________

Name:
Its:


By:__________________________

Name:
Its:


     

Exhibit 4.4


 

 

 
 
SCORPIO BULKERS INC.

FORM OF

SUBORDINATED INDENTURE

Dated as of [           ], 20[ ]




[         ]

Trustee



 





     



TABLE OF CONTENTS
PAGE
 

ARTICLE I DEFINITIONS AND INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE
1

SECTION 1.01.
Definitions.
1
SECTION 1.02.
Other Definitions.
5
SECTION 1.03.
Incorporation by Reference of Trust Indenture Act.
5
SECTION 1.04.
Rules of Construction.
6

ARTICLE II THE SECURITIES
6

SECTION 2.01.
Issuable in Series.
6
SECTION 2.02.
Establishment of Terms of Series of Securities.
7
SECTION 2.03.
Execution and Authentication.
9
SECTION 2.04.
Registrar and Paying Agent.
10
SECTION 2.05.
Paying Agent to Hold Money in Trust.
10
SECTION 2.06.
Securityholder Lists.
11
SECTION 2.07.
Transfer and Exchange.
11
SECTION 2.08.
Mutilated, Destroyed, Lost and Stolen Securities.
12
SECTION 2.09.
Outstanding Securities.
12
SECTION 2.10.
Treasury Securities.
13
SECTION 2.11.
Temporary Securities.
13
SECTION 2.12.
Cancellation.
13
SECTION 2.13.
Defaulted Interest.
14
SECTION 2.14.
Global Securities.
14
SECTION 2.15.
CUSIP Numbers.
16

ARTICLE III REDEMPTION
16

SECTION 3.01.
Notice to Trustee.
16
SECTION 3.02.
Selection of Securities to be Redeemed.
16
SECTION 3.03.
Notice of Redemption.
17
SECTION 3.04.
Effect of Notice of Redemption.
17
SECTION 3.05.
Deposit of Redemption Price.
18
SECTION 3.06.
Securities Redeemed in Part.
18
 

 


ARTICLE IV COVENANTS
18

SECTION 4.01.
Payment of Principal and Interest.
18
SECTION 4.02.
SEC Reports.
18
SECTION 4.03.
Compliance Certificate.
19
SECTION 4.04.
Stay, Extension and Usury Laws.
20
SECTION 4.05.
Corporate Existence.
20
SECTION 4.06.
Taxes.
20
SECTION 4.07.
Additional Interest Notice.
20
SECTION 4.08.
Further Instruments and Acts.
20

ARTICLE V SUCCESSORS
21

SECTION 5.01.
When Company May Merge, Etc.
21
SECTION 5.02.
Successor Corporation Substituted.
21

ARTICLE VI DEFAULTS AND REMEDIES
21

SECTION 6.01.
Events of Default.
21
SECTION 6.02.
Acceleration of Maturity; Rescission and Annulment.
23
SECTION 6.03.
Collection of Indebtedness and Suits for Enforcement by Trustee.
25
SECTION 6.04.
Trustee May File Proofs of Claim.
25
SECTION 6.05.
Trustee May Enforce Claims Without Possession of Securities.
26
SECTION 6.06.
Application of Money Collected.
26
SECTION 6.07.
Limitation on Suits.
26
SECTION 6.08.
Unconditional Right of Holders to Receive Principal and Interest.
27
SECTION 6.09.
Restoration of Rights and Remedies.
27
SECTION 6.10.
Rights and Remedies Cumulative.
27
SECTION 6.11.
Delay or Omission Not Waiver.
27
SECTION 6.12.
Control by Holders.
28
SECTION 6.13.
Waiver of Past Defaults.
28
SECTION 6.14.
Undertaking for Costs.
28

ARTICLE VII TRUSTEE
29

SECTION 7.01.
Duties of Trustee.
29
SECTION 7.02.
Rights of Trustee.
30

 






SECTION 7.03.
Individual Rights of Trustee.
31
SECTION 7.04.
Trustee's Disclaimer.
31
SECTION 7.05.
Notice of Defaults.
31
SECTION 7.06.
Reports by Trustee to Holders.
31
SECTION 7.07.
Compensation and Indemnity.
32
SECTION 7.08.
Replacement of Trustee.
32
SECTION 7.09.
Successor Trustee by Merger, etc.
33
SECTION 7.10.
Eligibility; Disqualification.
33
SECTION 7.11.
Preferential Collection of Claims Against Company.
34

ARTICLE VIII SATISFACTION AND DISCHARGE; DEFEASANCE
34

SECTION 8.01.
Satisfaction and Discharge of Indenture.
34
SECTION 8.02.
Application of Trust Funds; Indemnification.
35
SECTION 8.03.
Legal Defeasance of Securities of any Series.
36
SECTION 8.04.
Covenant Defeasance.
37
SECTION 8.05.
Repayment to Company.
38

ARTICLE IX AMENDMENTS AND WAIVERS
38

SECTION 9.01.
Without Consent of Holders.
38
SECTION 9.02.
With Consent of Holders.
39
SECTION 9.03.
Limitations.
40
SECTION 9.04.
Compliance with Trust Indenture Act.
40
SECTION 9.05.
Revocation and Effect of Consents.
41
SECTION 9.06.
Notation on or Exchange of Securities.
41
SECTION 9.07.
Trustee Protected.
41
SECTION 9.08.
Effect of Supplemental Indenture.
41

ARTICLE X MISCELLANEOUS
42

SECTION 10.01.
Trust Indenture Act Controls.
42
SECTION 10.02.
Notices.
42
SECTION 10.03.
Communication by Holders with Other Holders.
43
SECTION 10.04.
Certificate and Opinion as to Conditions Precedent.
43
SECTION 10.05.
Statements Required in Certificate or Opinion.
43
 

 




 


SECTION 10.06.
Record Date for Vote or Consent of Holders.
44
SECTION 10.07.
Rules by Trustee and Agents.
44
SECTION 10.08.
Legal Holidays.
44
SECTION 10.09.
No Recourse Against Others.
44
SECTION 10.10.
Counterparts.
44
SECTION 10.11.
Governing Laws and Submission to Jurisdiction.
45
SECTION 10.12.
No Adverse Interpretation of Other Agreements.
45
SECTION 10.13.
Successors.
45
SECTION 10.14.
Severability.
45
SECTION 10.15.
Table of Contents, Headings, Etc.
45
SECTION 10.16.
Securities in a Foreign Currency or in ECU.
46
SECTION 10.17.
Judgment Currency.
46
SECTION 10.18.
Compliance with Applicable Anti-Terrorism and Money Laundering Regulations.
47

ARTICLE XI SINKING FUNDS
47

SECTION 11.01.
Applicability of Article.
47
SECTION 11.02.
Satisfaction of Sinking Fund Payments with Securities.
48
SECTION 11.03.
Redemption of Securities for Sinking Fund.
48








Reconciliation and tie between Trust Indenture Act of 1939 and Indenture,
Dated as of [          ], 20[ ]
 
Section 310(a)(1)
7.10
(a)(2)
7.10
(a)(3)
Not Applicable
(a)(4)
Not Applicable
(a)(5)
7.10
(b)
7.10
(c)
Not Applicable
Section 311(a)
7.11
(b)
7.11
(c)
Not Applicable
Section 312(a)
2.06
(b)
10.03
(c)
10.03
Section 313(a)
7.06
(b)(1)
7.06
(b)(2)
7.06
(c)(1)
7.06
(d)
7.06
Section 314(a)
4.02, 10.05
(b)
Not Applicable
(c)(1)
10.04
(c)(2)
10.04
(c)(3)
Not Applicable
(d)
Not Applicable
(e)
10.05
(f)
Not Applicable
Section 315(a)
7.01
(b)
7.05
(c)
7.01
(d)
7.01
(e)
6.14
Section 316(a)(1)(A)
6.12
(a)(1)(B)
6.13
(a)(2)
Not Applicable
(b)
6.13
(c)
10.06
Section 317(a)(1)
6.03
(a)(2)
6.04
(b)
2.05
Section 318(a)
10.01
 
Note:  This reconciliation and tie shall not, for any purpose, be deemed to be part of the Indenture.
     



Indenture dated as of [          ], 20[ ] between Scorpio Bulkers Inc., a company organized under the laws of the Republic of the Marshall Islands (the "Company") and [          ] (the "Trustee").
 
Each party agrees as follows for the benefit of the other party and for the equal and ratable benefit of the Holders of the Securities issued under this Indenture.
 
ARTICLE I

DEFINITIONS AND INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE
 
SECTION 1.01.          Definitions.
 
"Additional Amounts" means any additional amounts which are required hereby or by any Security, under circumstances specified herein or therein, to be paid by the Company in respect of certain taxes imposed on Holders specified therein and which are owing to such Holders.
 
"Affiliate" of any specified person means any other person directly or indirectly controlling or controlled by or under direct or indirect common control with such specified person.  For the purposes of this definition, "control" (including, with correlative meanings, the terms "controlled by" and "under common control with"), as used with respect to any person, shall mean the possession, directly or indirectly, of the power to direct or cause the direction of the management or policies of such person, whether through the ownership of voting securities or by agreement or otherwise.
 
"Agent" means any Registrar or Paying Agent.
 
"Bankruptcy Law" means Title 11 of the United States Code (or any successor thereto) or any similar federal or state law for the relief of debtors.
 
"Board of Directors" means the board of directors of the Company or any duly authorized committee thereof.
 
"Board Resolution" means a copy of a resolution certified by the Secretary or an Assistant Secretary of the Company to have been adopted by the Board of Directors or pursuant to authorization by the Board of Directors and to be in full force and effect on the date of the certificate and delivered to the Trustee.
 
"Business Day" means any day other than a (x) Saturday, (y) Sunday or (z) day on which state or federally chartered banking institutions in New York, New York are not required to be open.
 
"Capital Stock" of any Person means any and all shares, interests, rights to purchase, warrants, options, participations or other equivalents of or interests in (however designated) equity of such Person, but excluding any debt securities convertible into such equity.
 

1


 
"Certificated Securities" means Securities in the form of physical, certificated Securities in registered form.
 
"Company" means the party named as such above until a successor replaces it in accordance with the terms of this Indenture and thereafter means the successor.
 
"Company Order" means a written order signed in the name of the Company by two Officers, one of whom must be the Company's principal executive officer, principal financial officer or principal accounting officer.
 
"Company Request" means a written request signed in the name of the Company by its Chairman of the Board, a President or a Vice President, and by its Chief Financial Officer, its Secretary or an Assistant Secretary, and delivered to the Trustee.
 
"Corporate Trust Office" means the office of the Trustee at which at any particular time its corporate trust business shall be principally administered which office at the date of the execution of this Indenture is [          ], Attention: [          ], or at such other address as the Trustee may designate from time to time.
 
"Custodian" means any receiver, trustee, assignee, liquidator, sequestrator or similar official under any Bankruptcy Law.
 
"Default" or "default" means any event which is, or after notice or passage of time or both would be, an Event of Default.
 
"Default Rate" means the default rate of interest specified in the Securities.
 
"Depository" means, with respect to the Securities of any Series issuable or issued in whole or in part in the form of one or more Global Securities, the person designated as Depository for such Series by the Company, which Depository shall be a clearing agency registered under the Exchange Act; and if at any time there is more than one such person, "Depository" as used with respect to the Securities of any Series shall mean the Depository with respect to the Securities of such Series.
 
"Discount Security" means any Security that provides for an amount less than the stated principal amount thereof to be due and payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof pursuant to Section 6.02.
 
"Dollars" means the currency of The United States of America.
 
"ECU" means the European Currency Unit as determined by the Commission of the European Union.
 
"Exchange Act" means the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended.
 
"Foreign Currency" means any currency or currency unit issued by a government other than the government of The United States of America.
 

2


 
"Foreign Government Obligations" means with respect to Securities of any Series that are denominated in a Foreign Currency, (i) direct obligations of the government that issued or caused to be issued such currency for the payment of which obligations its full faith and credit is pledged or (ii) obligations of a person controlled or supervised by or acting as an agency or instrumentality of such government the timely payment of which is unconditionally guaranteed as a full faith and credit obligation by such government, which, in either case under clauses (i) or (ii), are not callable or redeemable at the option of the issuer thereof.
 
"Global Security" or "Global Securities" means a Security or Securities, as the case may be, in the form established pursuant to Section 2.02 evidencing all or part of a Series of Securities, issued to the Depository for such Series or its nominee, and registered in the name of such Depository or nominee.
 
"Holder" or "Securityholder" means a person in whose name a Security is registered.
 
"Indenture" means this Indenture as amended and supplemented from time to time and shall include the form and terms of particular Series of Securities established as contemplated hereunder.
 
"Interest," in respect of the Securities, unless the context otherwise requires, refers to interest payable on the Securities, including any additional interest that may become payable pursuant to Section 6.02(b).
 
"Maturity," when used with respect to any Security or installment of principal thereof, means the date on which the principal of such Security or such installment of principal becomes due and payable as therein or herein provided, whether at the Stated Maturity or by declaration of acceleration, call for redemption, notice of option to elect repayment or otherwise.
 
"Officer" means the Chairman of the Board, the President, any Vice-President, the Treasurer, the Secretary, any Assistant Treasurer or any Assistant Secretary of the Company.
 
"Officers' Certificate" means a certificate signed by two Officers, one of whom must be the Company's principal executive officer, principal financial officer or principal accounting officer.
 
"Opinion of Counsel" means a written opinion of legal counsel who is, and which opinion is, acceptable to the Trustee and its counsel.  Such legal counsel may be an employee of or counsel to the Company or the Trustee.
 
"Person" means any individual, corporation, partnership, joint venture, association, limited liability company, joint-stock company, trust, unincorporated organization or government or any agency or political subdivision thereof.
 
"Principal" or "principal" of a Security means the principal of the Security plus, when appropriate, the premium, if any, on, and any Additional Amounts in respect of, the Security.
 
 

3


 
"Responsible Officer" means any officer of the Trustee in its Corporate Trust Office and also means, any vice president, managing director, director, associate, assistant vice president, or any other officer of the Trustee customarily performing functions similar to those performed by any of the above designated officers and also, with respect to a particular corporate trust matter, any other officer to whom any corporate trust matter is referred because of his or her knowledge of and familiarity with a particular subject.
 
"SEC" means the Securities and Exchange Commission.
 
"Security" or "Securities" means the debentures, notes or other debt instruments of the Company of any Series authenticated and delivered under this Indenture.
 
"Series" or "Series of Securities" means each series of debentures, notes or other debt instruments of the Company created pursuant to Sections 2.01 and 2.02 hereof.
 
"Stated Maturity" when used with respect to any Security or any installment of principal thereof or interest thereon, means the date specified in such Security as the fixed date on which the principal of such Security or such installment of principal or interest is due and payable.
 
"Subordinated Indebtedness" means any indebtedness which is expressly subordinated to the indebtedness evidenced by Securities.
 
"Subsidiary" means, in respect of any Person, any corporation, association, partnership or other business entity of which more than 50% of the total voting power of shares of Capital Stock or other interests (including partnership interests) entitled (without regard to the occurrence of any contingency) to vote in the election of directors, managers, general partners or trustees thereof is at the time owned or controlled, directly or indirectly, by (i) such Person; (ii) such Person and one or more Subsidiaries of such Person; or (iii) one or more Subsidiaries of such Person.
 
"TIA" means the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 (15 U.S. Code Sections 77aaa-77bbbb) as in effect on the date of this Indenture; provided, however, that in the event the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 is amended after such date, "TIA" means, to the extent required by any such amendment, the Trust Indenture Act as so amended.
 
"Trustee" means the person named as the "Trustee" in the first paragraph of this instrument until a successor Trustee shall have become such pursuant to the applicable provisions of this Indenture, and thereafter "Trustee" shall mean or include each person who is then a Trustee hereunder, and if at any time there is more than one such person, "Trustee" as used with respect to the Securities of any Series shall mean the Trustee with respect to Securities of that Series.
 
 

4


 
"U.S. Government Obligations" means securities which are (i) direct obligations of The United States of America for the payment of which its full faith and credit is pledged or (ii) obligations of a person controlled or supervised by and acting as an agency or instrumentality of The United States of America the payment of which is unconditionally guaranteed as a full faith and credit obligation by The United States of America, and which in the case of (i) and (ii) are not callable or redeemable at the option of the issuer thereof, and shall also include a depository receipt issued by a bank or trust company as custodian with respect to any such U.S. Government Obligation or a specific payment of interest on or principal of any such U.S. Government Obligation held by such custodian for the account of the holder of a depository receipt, provided that (except as required by law) such custodian is not authorized to make any deduction from the amount payable to the holder of such depository receipt from any amount received by the custodian in respect of the U.S. Government Obligation evidenced by such depository receipt.
 
SECTION 1.02.          Other Definitions.
 
 
 
TERM
 
DEFINED IN SECTION
 
 
"Applicable Law"
10.18
 
 
"Event of Default"
6.01
 
 
"Instrument"
6.01
 
 
"Journal"
10.16
 
 
"Judgment Currency"
10.17
 
 
"Legal Holiday"
10.08
 
 
"mandatory sinking fund payment"
11.01
 
 
"Market Exchange Rate"
10.16
 
 
"New York Banking Day"
10.17
 
 
"optional sinking fund payment"
11.01
 
 
"Paying Agent"
2.04
 
 
"Registrar"
2.04
 
 
"Required Currency"
10.17
 
 
"successor person"
5.01
 
 
"Temporary Securities"
2.11
 
 
SECTION 1.03.          Incorporation by Reference of Trust Indenture Act.
 
Whenever this Indenture refers to a provision of the TIA, the provision is incorporated by reference in and made a part of this Indenture.  This Indenture shall also include those provisions of the TIA required to be included herein by the provisions of the Trust Indenture Reform Act of 1990.  The following TIA terms used in this Indenture have the following meanings:
 
"indenture securities" means the Securities.
 
"indenture security holder" means a Securityholder.
 
"indenture to be qualified" means this Indenture.
 
"indenture trustee" or "institutional trustee" means the Trustee.
 
"obligor" on the indenture securities means the Company and any successor obligor upon the Securities.
 
 

5


 
All other terms used in this Indenture that are defined by the TIA, defined by TIA reference to another statute or defined by SEC rule under the TIA and not otherwise defined herein are used herein as so defined.
 
SECTION 1.04.          Rules of Construction.
 
Unless the context otherwise requires:
 
(a)          a term has the meaning assigned to it;
 
(b)          an accounting term not otherwise defined has the meaning assigned to it in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles;
 
(c)          references to "generally accepted accounting principles" shall mean generally accepted accounting principles in effect as of the time when and for the period as to which such accounting principles are to be applied;
 
(d)          "or" is not exclusive;
 
(e)          words in the singular include the plural, and in the plural include the singular;
 
(f)          provisions apply to successive events and transactions;
 
(g)          references to agreements and other instruments include subsequent amendments thereto;
 
(h)          the term "merger" includes a statutory share exchange, and the term "merged" has a correlative meaning; and
 
(i)          "herein," "hereof" and other words of similar import refer to this Indenture as a whole and not to any particular Article, Section or other subdivision.
 
ARTICLE II

THE SECURITIES
 
SECTION 2.01.          Issuable in Series.
 
The aggregate principal amount of Securities that may be authenticated and delivered under this Indenture is unlimited.  The Securities may be issued in one or more Series.  All Securities of a Series shall be identical except as may be set forth in a Board Resolution, a supplemental indenture or an Officers' Certificate detailing the adoption of the terms thereof pursuant to the authority granted under a Board Resolution.  In the case of Securities of a Series to be issued from time to time, the Board Resolution, Officers' Certificate or supplemental indenture may provide for the method by which specified terms (such as interest rate, maturity date, record date or date from which interest shall accrue) are to be determined.  Securities may differ between Series in respect of any matters, provided that all Series of Securities shall be equally and ratably entitled to the benefits of the Indenture.

 
 

6


 
SECTION 2.02.          Establishment of Terms of Series of Securities.
 
At or prior to the issuance of any Securities within a Series, the following shall be established (as to the Series generally, in the case of Subsection (a), and either as to such Securities within the Series or as to the Series generally in the case of Subsections (b) through (t) by a Board Resolution, a supplemental indenture or an Officers' Certificate pursuant to authority granted under a Board Resolution:
 
(a)          the title, designation, aggregate principal amount and authorized denominations of the Securities of the Series;
 
(b)          the price or prices, (expressed as a percentage of the aggregate principal amount thereof) at which the Securities of the Series will be issued;
 
(c)          the date or dates on which the principal of the Securities of the Series is payable;
 
(d)          the rate or rates (which may be fixed or variable) per annum or, if applicable, the method used to determine such rate or rates (including, but not limited to, any commodity, commodity index, stock exchange index or financial index) at which the Securities of the Series shall bear interest, if any, the date or dates from which such interest, if any, shall commence and be payable and any regular record date for the interest payable on any interest payment date;
 
(e)          any optional or mandatory sinking fund provisions or conversion or exchangeability provisions upon which Securities of the Series shall be redeemed, purchased, converted or exchanged;
 
(f)          the date, if any, after which and the price or prices at which the Securities of the Series may be optionally redeemed or must be mandatorily redeemed and any other terms and provisions of optional or mandatory provisions;
 
(g)          if other than denominations of $1,000 and any integral multiple thereof, the denominations in which the Securities of the Series shall be issuable;
 
(h)          if other than the full principal amount, the portion of the principal amount of the Securities of the Series that shall be payable upon declaration of acceleration pursuant to Section 6.02 or provable in bankruptcy;
 
(i)          any addition to or change in the Events of Default which applies to any Securities of the Series and any change in the right of the Trustee or the requisite Holders of such Securities to declare the principal amount thereof due and payable pursuant to Section 6.02;
 
 
 

7


 
(j)          the currency or currencies, including composite currencies, in which payments of principal of, premium or interest, if any, on the Securities of the Series will be payable, if other than the currency of the United States of America;
 
(k)          if payments of principal of, premium or interest, if any, on the Securities of the Series will be payable, at the Company's election or at the election of any Holder, in a currency other than that in which the Securities of the Series are stated to be payable, the period or periods within which, and the terms and conditions upon which, the election may be made;
 
(l)          if payments of interest, if any, on the Securities of the Series will be payable, at the Company's election or at the election of any Holder, in cash or additional securities, and the terms and conditions upon which the election may be made;
 
(m)          if denominated in a currency or currencies other than the currency of the United States of America, the equivalent price of the Securities of the Series in the currency of the United States of America for purposes of determining the voting rights of Holders of the Securities of the Series;
 
(n)          if the amount of payments of principal, premium or interest may be determined with reference to an index, formula or other method based on a coin or currency other than that in which the Securities of the Series are stated to be payable, the manner in which the amounts will be determined;
 
(o)          any restrictive covenants or other material terms relating to the Securities of the Series;
 
(p)          whether the Securities of the Series will be issued in the form of global securities or certificates in registered form;
 
(q)          any terms with respect to subordination;
 
(r)          any listing on any securities exchange or quotation system;
 
(s)          additional provisions, if any, related to defeasance and discharge of the offered debt securities; and
 
(t)          the applicability of any guarantees, which would be governed by New York law.
 
All Securities of any one Series need not be issued at the same time and may be issued from time to time, consistent with the terms of this Indenture, if so provided by or pursuant to the Board Resolution, supplemental indenture or Officers' Certificate referred to above, and the authorized principal amount of any Series may not be increased to provide for issuance of additional Securities of such Series, unless otherwise provided in such Board Resolution, supplemental Indenture or Officers' Certificate.
 
 

8


 
SECTION 2.03.          Execution and Authentication.
 
Two Officers shall sign the Securities for the Company by manual or facsimile signature.
 
If an Officer whose signature is on a Security no longer holds that office at the time the Security is authenticated, the Security shall nevertheless be valid.
 
A Security shall not be valid until authenticated by the manual signature of the Trustee or an authenticating agent.  The signature shall be conclusive evidence that the Security has been authenticated under this Indenture.
 
The Trustee shall at any time, and from time to time, authenticate Securities for original issue in the principal amount provided in the Board Resolution, supplemental indenture hereto or Officers' Certificate, upon receipt by the Trustee of a Company Order.  Such Company Order may authorize authentication and delivery pursuant to oral or electronic instructions from the Company or its duly authorized agent or agents, which oral instructions shall be promptly confirmed in writing.  Each Security shall be dated the date of its authentication unless otherwise provided by a Board Resolution, a supplemental indenture hereto or an Officers' Certificate.
 
The aggregate principal amount of Securities of any Series outstanding at any time may not exceed any limit upon the maximum principal amount for such Series set forth in the Board Resolution, supplemental indenture hereto or Officers' Certificate delivered pursuant to Section 2.02, except as provided in Section 2.08.
 
Prior to the issuance of Securities of any Series, the Trustee shall have received and (subject to Section 7.02) shall be fully protected in relying on: (a) the Board Resolution, supplemental indenture hereto or Officers Certificate establishing the form of the Securities of that Series or of Securities within that Series and the terms of the Securities of that Series or of Securities within that Series, (b) an Officers' Certificate complying with Section 10.04, and (c) an Opinion of Counsel complying with Section 10.04.
 
The Trustee shall have the right to decline to authenticate and deliver any Securities of such Series: (a) if the Trustee, being advised by counsel, determines that such action may not lawfully be taken; or (b) if a Responsible Officer of the Trustee in good faith shall determine that such action would expose the Trustee to personal liability to Holders of any then outstanding Series of Securities.
 
The Trustee may appoint an authenticating agent acceptable to the Company to authenticate Securities.  An authenticating agent may authenticate Securities whenever the Trustee may do so.  Each reference in this Indenture to authentication by the Trustee includes authentication by such agent.  An authenticating agent has the same rights as an Agent to deal with the Company or an Affiliate.
 
 

9


 
If any successor that has replaced the Company in accordance with Article 5 has executed an indenture supplemental hereto with the Trustee pursuant to Section 5.01, any of the Securities authenticated or delivered prior to such transaction may, from time to time, at the request of such successor, be exchanged for other Securities executed in the name of the such successor with such changes in phraseology and form as may be appropriate, but otherwise identical to the Securities surrendered for such exchange and of like principal amount; and the Trustee, upon receipt of a Company Order of such successor, shall authenticate and deliver Securities as specified in such order for the purpose of such exchange.  If Securities shall at any time be authenticated and delivered in any new name of such successor pursuant to this provision of Section 2.03 in exchange or substitution for or upon registration of transfer of any Securities, such successor, at the option of the Holders but without expense to them, shall provide for the exchange of all Securities then outstanding for Securities authenticated and delivered in such new name.
 
SECTION 2.04.          Registrar and Paying Agent.
 
The Company shall maintain, with respect to each Series of Securities, at the place or places specified with respect to such Series pursuant to Section 2.02, an office or agency where Securities of such Series may be presented or surrendered for payment ("Paying Agent") and where Securities of such Series may be surrendered for registration of transfer or exchange ("Registrar").  The Registrar shall keep a register with respect to each Series of Securities and to their transfer and exchange.  The Company will give prompt written notice to the Trustee of the name and address, and any change in the name or address, of each Registrar and Paying Agent.  If at any time the Company shall fail to maintain any such required Registrar or Paying Agent or shall fail to furnish the Trustee with the name and address thereof, such presentations and surrenders may be made or served at the Corporate Trust Office of the Trustee, and the Company hereby appoints the Trustee as its agent to receive all such presentations and surrenders.
 
The Company may also from time to time designate one or more co-registrars or additional paying agents and may from time to time rescind such designations; provided, however, that no such designation or rescission shall in any manner relieve the Company of its obligations to maintain a Registrar or Paying Agent in each place so specified pursuant to Section 2.02 for Securities of any Series for such purposes.  The Company will give prompt written notice to the Trustee of any such designation or rescission and of any change in the name or address of any such co-registrar or additional paying agent.  The term "Registrar" includes any co-registrar; and the term "Paying Agent" includes any additional paying agent.
 
The Company hereby appoints [          ] as the initial Registrar and Paying Agent for each Series unless another Registrar or Paying Agent as the case may be, is appointed prior to the time Securities of that Series are first issued.  Each Registrar and Paying Agent shall be entitled to all of the rights, protections, exculpations and indemnities afforded to the Trustee in connection with its roles as Registrar and Paying Agent.
 
SECTION 2.05.          Paying Agent to Hold Money in Trust.
 
The Company shall require each Paying Agent other than the Trustee to agree in writing that the Paying Agent will hold in trust, for the benefit of Securityholders of any Series of Securities, or the Trustee, all money held by the Paying Agent for the payment of principal of or interest on the Series of Securities, and will notify the Trustee of any default by the Company in making any such payment.  While any such default continues, the Trustee may require a Paying Agent to pay all money held by it to the Trustee.  The Company at any time may require a Paying Agent to pay all money held by it to the Trustee.  Upon payment over to the Trustee, the Paying Agent (if other than the Company or a Subsidiary) shall have no further liability for the money.  If the Company or a Subsidiary acts as Paying Agent, it shall segregate and hold in a separate trust fund for the benefit of Securityholders of any Series of Securities all money held by it as Paying Agent.
 
 

10


 
SECTION 2.06.          Securityholder Lists.
 
The Trustee shall preserve in as current a form as is reasonably practicable the most recent list available to it of the names and addresses of Securityholders of each Series of Securities and shall otherwise comply with TIA Section 312(a).  If the Trustee is not the Registrar, the Company shall furnish to the Trustee at least [  ] days before each interest payment date and at such other times as the Trustee may request in writing a list, in such form and as of such date as the Trustee may reasonably require, of the names and addresses of Securityholders of each Series of Securities.
 
SECTION 2.07.          Transfer and Exchange.
 
Where Securities of a Series are presented to the Registrar or a co-registrar with a request to register a transfer or to exchange them for an equal principal amount of Securities of the same Series, the Registrar shall register the transfer or make the exchange if its requirements for such transactions are met.  To permit registrations of transfers and exchanges, the Trustee shall authenticate Securities at the Registrar's request.  Any exchange or transfer shall be without charge, except that the Company or the Registrar may require payment of a sum sufficient to cover any tax or other governmental charge required by law; provided that this sentence shall not apply to any exchange pursuant to Section 2.11, 2.08, 3.06 or 9.06.
 
Neither the Company nor the Registrar shall be required (a) to issue, register the transfer of, or exchange Securities of any Series for the period beginning at the opening of business [  ] days immediately preceding the mailing of a notice of redemption of Securities of that Series selected for redemption and ending at the close of business on the day of such mailing, or (b) to register the transfer of or exchange Securities of any Series selected, called or being called for redemption as a whole or the portion being redeemed of any such Securities selected, called or being called for redemption in part.
 
All Securities issued upon any transfer or exchange of Securities shall be valid obligations of the Company, evidencing the same debt and entitled to the same benefits under this Indenture, as the Securities surrendered upon such transfer or exchange.  Any Registrar appointed pursuant to Section 2.04 shall provide to the Trustee such information as the Trustee may reasonably require in connection with the delivery by such Registrar of Securities upon transfer or exchange of Securities.  Each Holder of a Security agrees to indemnify the Company and the Trustee against any liability that may result from the transfer, exchange or assignment of such Holder's Security in violation of any provision of this Indenture and/or applicable U.S. federal or state securities law.

 

11


SECTION 2.08.          Mutilated, Destroyed, Lost and Stolen Securities.
 
If any mutilated Security is surrendered to the Registrar, the Company shall execute and the Trustee shall authenticate and deliver in exchange therefor a new Security of the same Series and of like tenor and principal amount and bearing a number not contemporaneously outstanding.
 
If there shall be delivered to the Company and the Registrar (i) evidence to their satisfaction of the destruction, loss or theft of any Security and (ii) such security or indemnity as may be required by them to save each of them and any agent of either of them harmless, then, in the absence of notice to the Company or the Registrar that such Security has been acquired by a bona fide purchaser, the Company shall execute and upon its request the Trustee shall authenticate and make available for delivery, in lieu of any such destroyed, lost or stolen Security, a new Security of the same Series and of like tenor and principal amount and bearing a number not contemporaneously outstanding.
 
In case any such mutilated, destroyed, lost or stolen Security has become or is about to become due and payable, the Company in its discretion may, instead of issuing a new Security, pay such Security.
 
Upon the issuance of any new Security under this Section, the Company may require the payment of a sum sufficient to cover any tax or other governmental charge that may be imposed in relation thereto and any other expenses (including the fees and expenses of the Trustee) connected therewith.
 
Every new Security of any series issued pursuant to this Section in lieu of any destroyed, lost or stolen Security shall constitute an original additional contractual obligation of the Company, whether or not the destroyed, lost or stolen Security shall be at any time enforceable by anyone, and shall be entitled to all the benefits of this Indenture equally and proportionately with any and all other Securities of that Series duly issued hereunder.
 
The provisions of this Section are exclusive and shall preclude (to the extent lawful) all other rights and remedies with respect to the replacement or payment of mutilated, destroyed, lost or stolen Securities.
 
SECTION 2.09.          Outstanding Securities.
 
The Securities outstanding at any time are all the Securities authenticated by the Trustee except for those canceled by it, those delivered to it for cancellation, those reductions in the interest on a Global Security effected by the Trustee in accordance with the provisions hereof and those described in this Section as not outstanding.
 
If a Security is replaced pursuant to Section 2.08, it ceases to be outstanding until the Trustee receives proof satisfactory to it that the replaced Security is held by a bona fide purchaser.
 
 

12


 
If the Paying Agent (other than the Company, a Subsidiary or an Affiliate of any thereof) holds on the Maturity of Securities of a Series money sufficient to pay such Securities payable on that date, then on and after that date such Securities of the Series cease to be outstanding and interest on them ceases to accrue.
 
A Security does not cease to be outstanding because the Company or an Affiliate holds the Security.
 
In determining whether the Holders of the requisite principal amount of outstanding Securities have given any request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent or waiver hereunder, the principal amount of a Discount Security that shall be deemed to be outstanding for such purposes shall be the amount of the principal thereof that would be due and payable as of the date of such determination upon a declaration of acceleration of the Maturity thereof pursuant to Section 6.02.
 
SECTION 2.10.          Treasury Securities.
 
In determining whether the Holders of the required principal amount of Securities of a Series have concurred in any request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent or waiver Securities of a Series owned by the Company or an Affiliate shall be disregarded, except that for the purposes of determining whether the Trustee shall be protected in relying on any such request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent or waiver only Securities of a Series that a Responsible Officer of the Trustee actually knows are so owned shall be so disregarded.
 
SECTION 2.11.          Temporary Securities.
 
Until definitive Securities are ready for delivery, the Company may prepare and the Trustee shall authenticate temporary securities upon a Company Order ("Temporary Securities").  Temporary Securities shall be substantially in the form of definitive Securities but may have variations that the Company considers appropriate for temporary Securities.  Without unreasonable delay, the Company shall prepare and the Trustee upon written request shall authenticate definitive Securities of the same Series and date of maturity in exchange for temporary Securities.  Until so exchanged, temporary securities shall have the same rights under this Indenture as the definitive Securities.
 
SECTION 2.12.          Cancellation.
 
The Company at any time may deliver Securities to the Trustee for cancellation.  The Registrar and the Paying Agent shall forward to the Trustee or its agent any Securities surrendered to them for transfer, exchange, payment or conversion.  The Trustee and no one else shall cancel, in accordance with its standard procedures, all Securities surrendered for transfer, exchange, payment, conversion or cancellation and shall deliver the cancelled Securities to the Company.  No Security shall be authenticated in exchange for any Security cancelled pursuant to this Section 2.12.
 
The Company may, to the extent permitted by law, purchase Securities in the open market or by tender offer at any price or by private agreement.  Any Securities purchased or otherwise acquired by the Company or any of its Subsidiaries prior to the final maturity of such Securities may, to the extent permitted by law, be reissued or resold or may, at the option of the Company, be surrendered to the Trustee for cancellation.  Any Securities surrendered for cancellation may not be reissued or resold and shall be promptly cancelled by the Trustee, and the Company may not hold or resell such Securities or issue any new Securities to replace any such Securities.
 
 

13

 
 
SECTION 2.13.          Defaulted Interest.
 
If the Company defaults in a payment of interest on a Series of Securities, it shall pay defaulted interest, plus, to the extent permitted by law, any interest payable on the defaulted interest at the Default Rate, to the persons who are Security holders of the Series on a subsequent special record date.  The Company shall fix the record date and payment date.  At least [  ] days before the record date, the Company shall mail to the Trustee and the Paying Agent and to each Securityholder of the Series a notice that states the record date, the payment date and the amount of interest to be paid.  The Company may pay defaulted interest in any other lawful manner.
 
SECTION 2.14.          Global Securities.
 
(a)          A Board Resolution, a supplemental indenture hereto or an Officers' Certificate shall establish whether the Securities of a Series shall be issued in whole or in part in the form of one or more Global Securities and the Depository for such Global Security or Securities.
 
(b)          (i)            Notwithstanding any provisions to the contrary contained in Section 2.07 of the Indenture and in addition thereto, any Global Security shall be exchangeable pursuant to Section 2.07 of the Indenture for Securities registered in the names of Holders other than the Depository for such Security or its nominee only if (A) such Depository notifies the Company that it is unwilling or unable to continue as Depository for such Global Security or if at any time such Depository ceases to be a clearing agency registered under the Exchange Act, and, in either case, the Company fails to appoint a successor Depository within 90 days of such event, (B) the Company executes and delivers to the Trustee an Officers' Certificate to the effect that such Global Security shall be so exchangeable or (C) an Event of Default with respect to the Securities represented by such Global Security shall have happened and be continuing.
 
(ii)          Except as provided in this Section 2.14(b), a Global Security may not be transferred except as a whole by the Depository with respect to such Global Security to a nominee of such Depository, by a nominee of such Depository to such Depository or another nominee of such Depository or by the Depository or any such nominee to a successor Depository or a nominee of such a successor Depository.
 
(iii)         Securities issued in exchange for a Global Security or any portion thereof shall be issued in definitive, fully registered form, without interest coupons, shall have an aggregate principal amount equal to that of such Global Security or portion thereof to be so exchanged, shall be registered in such names and be in such authorized denominations as the Depository shall designate and shall bear the applicable legends provided for herein.  Any Global Security to be exchanged in whole shall be surrendered by the Depository to the Trustee, as Registrar.  With regard to any Global Security to be exchanged in part, either such Global Security shall be so surrendered for exchange or, if the Registrar is acting as custodian for the Depository or its nominee with respect to such Global Security, the principal amount thereof shall be reduced by an amount equal to the portion thereof to be so exchanged, by means of an appropriate adjustment made on the records of the Trustee.  Upon any such surrender or adjustment, the Trustee shall authenticate and deliver the Security issuable on such exchange to or upon the order of the Depository or an authorized representative thereof.
 
 
 

14


 
(iv)         The registered Holder may grant proxies and otherwise authorize any Person, including participants in the Depository and persons that may hold interests through participants in the Depository, to take any action which a Holder is entitled to take under this Indenture or the Securities.
 
(v)          In the event of the occurrence of any of the events specified in 2.14(b)(i), the Company will promptly make available to the Trustee a reasonable supply of Certificated Securities in definitive, fully registered form, without interest coupons.  If (A) an event described in Section 2.14(b)(i)(A) or (B) occurs and definitive Certificated Securities are not issued promptly to all beneficial owners or (B) the Registrar receives from a beneficial owner instructions to obtain definitive Certificated Securities due to an event described in Section 2.14(b)(i)(C) and definitive Certificated Securities are not issued promptly to any such beneficial owner, the Company expressly acknowledges, with respect to the right of any Holder to pursue a remedy pursuant to Section 6.07 hereof, the right of any beneficial owner of Securities to pursue such remedy with respect to the portion of the Global Security that represents such beneficial owner's Securities as if such definitive certificated Securities had been issued.
 
(vi)          Notwithstanding any provision to the contrary in this Indenture, so long as a Global Security remains outstanding and is held by or on behalf of the Depository, transfers of a Global Security, in whole or in part, or of any beneficial interest therein, shall only be made in accordance with Section 2.07, this Section 2.14(b) and the rules and procedures of the Depository for such Global Security to the extent applicable to such transaction and as in effect from time to time.
 
(c)          Any Global Security issued hereunder shall bear a legend in substantially the following form:
 
"This Security is a Global Security within the meaning of the Indenture hereinafter referred to and is registered in the name of the Depository or a nominee of the Depository.  This Security is exchangeable for Securities registered in the name of a person other than the Depository or its nominee only in the limited circumstances described in the Indenture, and may not be transferred except as a whole by the Depository to a nominee of the Depository, by a nominee of the Depository to the Depository or another nominee of the Depository or by the Depository or any such nominee to a successor Depository or a nominee of such a successor Depository."
 
(d)          The Depository, as a Holder, may appoint agents and otherwise authorize participants to give or take any request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver or other action which a Holder is entitled to give or take under the Indenture.
 
 
 

15


 
(e)          Notwithstanding the other provisions of this Indenture, unless otherwise specified as contemplated by Section 2.02, payment of the principal of and interest, if any, on any Global Security shall be made to the Holder thereof at their registered office.
 
(f)          At all times the Securities are held in book-entry form with a Depository, (i) the Trustee may deal with such Depository as the authorized representative of the Holders, (ii) the rights of the Holders shall be exercised only through the Depository and shall be limited to those established by law and agreement between the Holders and the Depository and/or direct participants of the Depository, (iii) the Depository will make book-entry transfers among the direct participants of the Depository and will receive and transmit distributions of principal and interest on the Securities to such direct participants; and (iv) the direct participants of the Depository shall have no rights under this Indenture, or any supplement hereto, under or with respect to any of the Securities held on their behalf by the Depository, and the Depository may be treated by the Trustee and its agents, employees, officers and directors as the absolute owner of the Securities for all purposes whatsoever.
 
SECTION 2.15.          CUSIP Numbers.
 
The Company in issuing the Securities may use "CUSIP", "CCN", "ISIN" or other identification numbers (if then generally in use), and, if so, the Trustee shall use "CUSIP", "CCN", "ISIN" or such other identification numbers in notices of redemption as a convenience to Holders; provided that any such notice may state that no representation is made as to the correctness of such numbers either as printed on the Securities or as contained in any notice of a redemption and that reliance may be placed only on the other elements of identification printed on the Securities, and any such redemption shall not be affected by any defect in or omission of such numbers.
 
ARTICLE III

REDEMPTION
 
SECTION 3.01.          Notice to Trustee.
 
The Company may, with respect to any series of Securities, reserve the right to redeem and pay the Series of Securities or may covenant to redeem and pay the Series of Securities or any part thereof prior to the Stated Maturity thereof at such time and on such terms as provided for in such Securities.  If a Series of Securities is redeemable and the Company wants or is obligated to redeem prior to the Stated Maturity thereof all or part of the Series of Securities pursuant to the terms of such Securities, it shall notify the Trustee and Registrar in writing of the redemption date and the principal amount of Series of Securities to be redeemed.  The Company shall give the notice at least [  ] days before the redemption date (or such shorter notice as may be acceptable to the Trustee and Registrar).
 
SECTION 3.02.          Selection of Securities to be Redeemed.
 
Unless otherwise indicated for a particular Series by a Board Resolution, a supplemental indenture or an Officers' Certificate, if less than all the Securities of a Series are to be redeemed, the Registrar shall select the Securities of the Series to be redeemed in accordance with its customary procedures.  The Registrar shall make the selection from Securities of the Series outstanding not previously called for redemption.  The Registrar may select for redemption portions of the principal of Securities of the Series that have denominations larger than $1,000.  Securities of the Series and portions of them it selects shall be in amounts of $1,000 or whole multiples of $1,000 or, with respect to Securities of any Series issuable in other denominations pursuant to Section 2.02(g), the minimum principal denomination for each Series and integral multiples thereof.  Provisions of this Indenture that apply to Securities of a Series called for redemption also apply to portions of Securities of that Series called for redemption.
 
 
 

16


 
SECTION 3.03.          Notice of Redemption.
 
Unless otherwise indicated for a particular Series by Board Resolution, a supplemental indenture hereto or an Officers' Certificate, at least [  ] days but not more than [  ] days before a redemption date, the Company shall mail a notice of redemption by first-class mail to each Holder whose Securities are to be redeemed.
 
The notice shall identify the Securities of the Series to be redeemed and shall state:
 
(a)          the redemption date;
 
(b)          the redemption price;
 
(c)          the name and address of the Paying Agent;
 
(d)          that Securities of the Series called for redemption must be surrendered to the Paying Agent to collect the redemption price;
 
(e)          that interest on Securities of the Series called for redemption ceases to accrue on and after the redemption date; and
 
(f)          any other information as may be required by the terms of the particular Series or the Securities of a Series being redeemed.
 
At the Company's written request, the Trustee shall distribute the notice of redemption prepared by the Company in the Company's name and at its expense.
 
SECTION 3.04.          Effect of Notice of Redemption.
 
Once notice of redemption is mailed or published as provided in Section 3.03, Securities of a Series called for redemption become due and payable on the redemption date and at the redemption price.  A notice of redemption may not be conditional.  Upon surrender to the Paying Agent, such Securities shall be paid at the redemption price plus accrued interest to the redemption date.
 
 
 

17


 
SECTION 3.05.          Deposit of Redemption Price.
 
On or before the redemption date, the Company shall deposit with the Paying Agent money sufficient to pay the redemption price of and accrued interest, if any, on all Securities to be redeemed on that date.
 
SECTION 3.06.          Securities Redeemed in Part.
 
Upon surrender of a Security that is redeemed in part, the Trustee shall authenticate for the Holder a new Security of the same Series and the same maturity equal in principal amount to the unredeemed portion of the Security surrendered.
 

ARTICLE IV

COVENANTS
 
SECTION 4.01.          Payment of Principal and Interest.
 
The Company covenants and agrees for the benefit of the Holders of each Series of Securities that it will duly and punctually pay the principal of and interest, if any, on the Securities of that Series in accordance with the terms of such Securities and this Indenture. 

Unless otherwise provided under the terms of a particular Series of Securities:

(a)          an installment of principal or interest shall be considered paid on the date it is due if the Paying Agent (other than the Company) holds by [          ] [a].m., New York City time, on that date money, deposited by the Company or an Affiliate thereof, sufficient to pay such installment.  The Company shall (in immediately available funds), to the fullest extent permitted by law, pay interest on overdue principal and overdue installments of interest at the rate borne by the Securities per annum; and
 
(b)          payment of the principal of and interest on the Securities shall be made at the office or agency of the Company maintained for that purpose in [          ] (which shall initially be [          ], the Paying Agent) in such coin or currency of the United States of America as at the time of payment is legal tender for payment of public and private debts; provided, however, that at the option of the Company payment of interest may be made by check mailed to the address of the Person entitled thereto as such address appears in the register; provided, further, that a Holder with an aggregate principal amount in excess of $[] will be paid by wire transfer in immediately available funds at the election of such Holder if such Holder has provided wire transfer instructions to the Company at least [  ] Business Days prior to the payment date.
 

SECTION 4.02.          SEC Reports.
 
So long as any Securities are outstanding, the Company shall (i) file with the SEC within the time periods prescribed by its rules and regulations and (ii) furnish to the Trustee and the Holders of the Securities within [  ] days after the date on which the Company would be required to file the same with the SEC pursuant to its rules and regulations (giving effect to any grace period provided by Rule 12b-25 under the Exchange Act), all quarterly and annual financial information required to be furnished or filed with the SEC pursuant to Section 13 and Section 15(d) of the Exchange Act and, with respect to the annual consolidated financial statements only, a report thereon by the Company's independent auditors.  The Company also shall comply with the other provisions of TIA Section 314(a).
 
 
 

18


 
Delivery of such reports, information and documents to the Trustee is for informational purposes only, and the Trustee's receipt of such shall not constitute constructive notice of any information contained therein or determinable from information contained therein, including the Company's compliance with any of its covenants hereunder (as to which the Trustee is entitled to rely exclusively on Officers' Certificates).  The Company shall not be required to file any report or other information with the SEC if the SEC does not permit such filing, although such reports shall be furnished to the Trustee.  Documents filed by the Company with the SEC via the SEC's EDGAR system (or any successor thereto) will be deemed furnished to the Trustee and the Holders of the Securities as of the time such documents are filed via EDGAR (or such successor).
 
SECTION 4.03.          Compliance Certificate.
 
The Company shall deliver to the Trustee, within [   ] days after the end of each fiscal year of the Company, an officers certificate signed by two of the Company's officers stating that a review of the activities of the Company and its Subsidiaries during the preceding fiscal year has been made under the supervision of the signing Officers with a view to determining whether the Company has kept, observed, performed and fulfilled its obligations under this Indenture, and further stating, as to each such Officer signing such certificate, that to the best of his knowledge the Company has kept, observed, performed and fulfilled each and every covenant contained in this Indenture and is not in default in the performance or observance of any of the terms, provisions and conditions hereof (or, if a Default or Event of Default shall have occurred, describing all such Defaults or Events of Default of which he may have knowledge in reasonable detail and the efforts to remedy the same).  For purposes of this Section 4.03, compliance shall be determined without regard to any grace period or requirement of notice provided pursuant to the terms of this Indenture.
 
The Company shall deliver to the Trustee, within [  ] days after the occurrence thereof, written notice in the form of an Officers' Certificate of any Event of Default described in Section 6.01(e), (f), (g) or (h) and any event of which it becomes aware that with the giving of notice or the lapse of time would become such an Event of Default, its status and what action the Company is taking or proposes to take with respect thereto.  For the avoidance of doubt, a breach of a covenant under an Instrument that is not a payment default and that has not given rise to a right of acceleration under such Instrument shall not trigger the requirement to provide notice under this paragraph.
 
 
 

19


 
SECTION 4.04.          Stay, Extension and Usury Laws.
 
The Company covenants (to the extent that it may lawfully do so) that it will not at any time insist upon, plead, or in any manner whatsoever claim or take the benefit or advantage of, any stay, extension or usury law wherever enacted, now or at any time hereafter in force, which may affect the covenants or the performance of this Indenture or the Securities; and the Company (to the extent it may lawfully do so) hereby expressly waives all benefit or advantage of any such law and covenants that it will not, by resort to any such law, hinder, delay or impede the execution of any power herein granted to the Trustee, but will suffer and permit the execution of every such power as though no such law has been enacted.
 
SECTION 4.05.          Corporate Existence.
 
Subject to Article V, the Company will do or cause to be done all things necessary to preserve and keep in full force and effect its corporate existence and the corporate, partnership or other existence of each Subsidiary in accordance with the respective organizational documents of each Subsidiary and the rights (charter and statutory), licenses and franchises of the Company and its Subsidiaries; provided, however, that the Company shall not be required to preserve any such right, license or franchise, or the corporate, partnership or other existence of any Subsidiary, if the Board of Directors shall determine that the preservation thereof is no longer desirable in the conduct of the business of the Company and its Subsidiaries taken as a whole and that the loss thereof is not adverse in any material respect to the Holders.
 
SECTION 4.06.          Taxes.
 
The Company shall, and shall cause each of its Subsidiaries to, pay prior to delinquency all taxes, assessments and governmental levies, except as contested in good faith and by appropriate proceedings.
 
SECTION 4.07.          Additional Interest Notice.
 
In the event that the Company is required to pay additional interest to Holders of Securities pursuant to Section 6.02(b) hereof, the Company shall provide a direction or order in the form of a written notice to the Trustee (and if the Trustee is not the Paying Agent, the Paying Agent) of the Company's obligation to pay such additional interest no later than [   ] Business Days prior to date on which any such additional interest is scheduled to be paid.  Such notice shall set forth the amount of additional interest to be paid by the Company on such payment date and direct the Trustee (or, if the Trustee is not the Paying Agent, the Paying Agent) to make payment to the extent it receives funds from the Company to do so.  The Trustee shall not at any time be under any duty or responsibility to any Holder to determine whether additional interest is payable, or with respect to the nature, extent, or calculation of the amount of additional interest owed, or with respect to the method employed in such calculation of additional interest.
 
SECTION 4.08.          Further Instruments and Acts.
 
The Company will execute and deliver such further instruments and do such further acts as may be reasonably necessary or proper to carry out more effectively the purposes of this Indenture.
 
 

20


 
ARTICLE V 

SUCCESSORS
 
SECTION 5.01.          When Company May Merge, Etc.
 
The Company shall not consolidate with, enter into a binding share exchange, or merge into any other Person in a transaction in which it is not the surviving entity, or sell, assign, convey, transfer or lease or otherwise dispose of all or substantially all of its properties and assets to any Person (a "successor person"), unless:
 
(a)          the successor person (if any) is a corporation, partnership, trust or other entity organized and validly existing under the laws of the Republic of the Marshall Islands, [          ], the United States, any state of the United States or the District of Columbia and expressly assumes by a supplemental indenture executed and delivered to the Trustee, in form satisfactory to the Trustee, the due and punctual payment of the principal of, and any interest on, all Securities and the performance or observance of every covenant of this Indenture on the part of the Company to be performed or observed;
 
(b)          immediately after giving effect to the transaction, no Default or Event of Default, shall have occurred and be continuing; and
 
(c)          the Company shall have delivered to the Trustee, prior to the consummation of the proposed transaction, an Officers' Certificate to the foregoing effect and an Opinion of Counsel stating that the proposed transaction and such supplemental indenture comply with this Indenture.
 
SECTION 5.02.          Successor Corporation Substituted.
 
Upon any consolidation or merger, or any sale, lease, conveyance or other disposition of all or substantially all of the assets of the Company in accordance with Section 5.01, the successor person formed by such consolidation or into or with which the Company is merged or to which such sale, lease, conveyance or other disposition is made shall succeed to, and be substituted for, and may exercise every right and power of, the Company under this Indenture with the same effect as if such successor person has been named as the Company herein; provided, however, that the predecessor company in the case of a sale, lease, conveyance or other disposition of all or substantially all of the assets of the Company shall not be released from the obligation to pay the principal of and interest, if any, on the Securities.
 
ARTICLE VI

DEFAULTS AND REMEDIES
 
SECTION 6.01.          Events of Default.
 
"Event of Default," wherever used herein with respect to securities of any Series, means any one of the following events, unless in the establishing Board Resolution, supplemental indenture or Officers' Certificate, it is provided that such Series shall not have the benefit of said Event of Default:
 
 
 

21


 
(a)          default in the payment of any interest on any Security of that Series when it becomes due and payable, and continuance of such default for a period of 30 days (unless the entire amount of such payment is deposited by the Company with the Trustee or with a Paying Agent prior to the expiration of such period of 30 days); or
 
(b)          default in the payment of any principal of any Security of that Series at its Maturity; or
 
(c)          default in the deposit of any sinking fund payment, when and as due in respect of any Security of that Series; or
 
(d)          the Company fails to perform or comply with any of its other covenants or agreements contained in the Securities or in this Indenture (other than a covenant or agreement a default in whose performance or whose breach is specifically dealt with in clauses (a), (b) or (c) of this Section 6.01) and the default continues for 60 days after notice is given as specified below;
 
(e)          any indebtedness under any bond, debenture, note or other evidence of indebtedness for money borrowed by the Company or any Subsidiary or under any mortgage, indenture or instrument under which there may be issued or by which there may be secured or evidenced any indebtedness for money borrowed by, or any other payment obligation of, the Company or any Subsidiary (an "Instrument") with a principal amount then, individually or in the aggregate, outstanding in excess of $[], whether such indebtedness now exists or shall hereafter be created, is not paid at Maturity or when otherwise due or is accelerated, and such indebtedness is not discharged, or such default in payment or acceleration is not cured or rescinded, within a period of 30 days after there shall have been given, by registered or certified mail, to the Company by the Trustee or to the Company and the Trustee by the Holders of at least [  ]% in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding Securities of that Series a written notice specifying such default and requiring the Company to cause such indebtedness to be discharged or cause such default to be cured or waived or such acceleration to be rescinded or annulled and stating that such notice is a "Notice of Default" hereunder.  A payment obligation (other than indebtedness under any bond, debenture, note or other evidence of indebtedness for money borrowed by the Company or any Subsidiary or under any mortgage, indenture or instrument under which there may be issued or by which there may be secured or evidenced any indebtedness for money borrowed by the Company or any Subsidiary) shall not be deemed to have matured, come due, or been accelerated to the extent that it is being disputed by the relevant obligor or obligors in good faith.  For the avoidance of doubt, the Maturity of an Instrument is the Maturity as set forth in that Instrument, as it may be amended from time to time in accordance with the terms of that Instrument;
 
(f)          the Company or any Subsidiary fails to pay one or more final and non-appealable judgments entered by a court or courts of competent jurisdiction, the aggregate uninsured or unbonded portion of which is in excess of $[          ], if the judgments are not paid, discharged, waived or stayed within [  ] days;
 
 

22


 
(g)          the Company or any Subsidiary of the Company, pursuant to or within the meaning of any Bankruptcy Law:
 
(i)          commences a voluntary case or proceeding;
 
(ii)         consents to the entry of an order for relief against it in an involuntary case or proceeding;
 
(iii)        consents to the appointment of a Custodian of it or for all or substantially all of its property; or
 
(iv)        makes a general assignment for the benefit of its creditors; or
 
(v)         or generally is unable to pay its debts as the same become due; or
 
(h)          a court of competent jurisdiction enters an order or decree under any Bankruptcy Law that:
 
(i)          is for relief against the Company or any of its Subsidiaries in an involuntary case or proceeding;
 
(ii)         appoints a Custodian of the Company or any of its Subsidiaries for all or substantially all of the property of the Company or any such Subsidiary; or
 
(iii)        orders the liquidation of the Company or any of its Subsidiaries;
 
and the case of each of clause (i), (ii) and (iii), the order or decree remains unstayed and in effect for [  ] consecutive days; or
 
(i)          any other Event of Default provided with respect to Securities of that Series, which is specified in a Board Resolution, a supplemental indenture hereto or an Officers' Certificate, in accordance with Section 2.02(i).
 
A default under clause (d) above is not an Event of Default until the Trustee notifies the Company, or the Holders of at least [  ]% in aggregate principal amount of the Securities then outstanding notify the Company and the Trustee, in writing of the default, and the Company does not cure the default within 60 days after receipt of such notice.  The notice given pursuant to this Section 6.01 must specify the default, demand that it be remedied and state that the notice is a "Notice of Default."  When any default under this Section 6.01 is cured, it ceases.
 
The Trustee shall not be charged with knowledge of any Event of Default unless written notice thereof shall have been given to a Trust Officer at the Corporate Trust Office of the Trustee by the Company, a Paying Agent, any Holder or any agent of any Holder. 
 
SECTION 6.02.          Acceleration of Maturity; Rescission and Annulment.

23


 
(a)          If an Event of Default (other than an Event of Default specified in clause (g) or (h) of Section 6.01) occurs and is continuing with respect to any Securities of any Series, then in every such case, the Trustee may, by notice to the Company, or the Holders of at least 25% in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of that Series (or, if any Securities of that Series are Discount Securities, such portion of the principal amount as may be specified in the terms of such Securities) then outstanding may, by notice to the Company and the Trustee, declare all unpaid principal of, and accrued and unpaid interest on to the date of acceleration, the Securities of that Series then outstanding (if not then due and payable) to be due and payable upon any such declaration, and the same shall become and be immediately due and payable.  If an Event of Default specified in clause (g) or (h) of Section 6.01 occurs, all unpaid principal of the Securities then outstanding, and all accrued and unpaid interest thereon to the date of acceleration, shall ipso facto become and be immediately due and payable without any declaration or other act on the part of the Trustee or any Holder.  The Holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of that Series then outstanding by notice to the Trustee may rescind an acceleration of such Securities of that Series and its consequences if (a) all existing Events of Default, other than the nonpayment of the principal of the Securities which has become due solely by such declaration of acceleration, have been cured or waived; (b) to the extent the payment of such interest is lawful, interest (calculated at the Default Rate) on overdue installments of interest and overdue principal, which has become due otherwise than by such declaration of acceleration, has been paid; (c) the rescission would not conflict with any judgment or decree of a court of competent jurisdiction; and (d) all payments due to the Trustee and any predecessor Trustee under Section 7.07 have been made.  No such rescission shall affect any subsequent default or impair any right consequent thereto.
 
(b)          Notwithstanding any of provision of this Article 6, at the election of the Company in its sole discretion, the sole remedy under this Indenture for an Event of Default relating to the failure to comply with Section 4.02, and for any failure to comply with the requirements of Section 314(a)(1) of the TIA, will consist, for the 180 days after the occurrence of such an Event of Default, exclusively of the right to receive additional interest on the Securities at a rate equal to 0.50% per annum of the aggregate principal amount of the Securities then outstanding up to, but not including, the 181st day thereafter (or, if applicable, the earlier date on which the Event of Default relating to Section 4.02 is cured or waived).  Any such additional interest will be payable in the same manner and on the same dates as the stated interest payable on the Securities.  In no event shall additional interest accrue under the terms of this Indenture at a rate in excess of 0.50% per annum, in the aggregate, for any violation or default caused by the failure of the Company to be current in respect of its Exchange Act reporting obligations.  If the Event of Default is continuing on the 181st day after an Event of Default relating to a failure to comply with Section 4.02, the Securities will be subject to acceleration as provided in this Section 6.02.  The provisions of this Section 6.02(b) will not affect the rights of Holders in the event of the occurrence of any other Events of Default.
 
In order to elect to pay additional interest as the sole remedy during the first 180 days after the occurrence of an Event of Default relating to the failure to comply with Section 4.02 in accordance with the immediately preceding paragraph, the Company shall notify all Holders and the Trustee and Paying Agent of such election on or before the close of business on the fifth Business Day after the date on which such Event of Default otherwise would occur.  Upon a failure by the Company to timely give such notice or pay additional interest, the Securities will be immediately subject to acceleration as otherwise provided in this Section 6.02.
 
 

24


 
SECTION 6.03.          Collection of Indebtedness and Suits for Enforcement by Trustee.
 
If an Event of Default with respect to any Securities of any Series occurs and is continuing, the Trustee may in its discretion proceed to protect and enforce its rights and the rights of the Holders of Securities of such Series by such appropriate judicial proceedings as the Trustee shall deem most effectual to protect and enforce any such rights, whether for the specific enforcement of any covenant or agreement in this Indenture or in aid of the exercise of any power granted herein, or to enforce any other proper remedy.
 
If an Event of Default in the payment of principal, interest, if any, specified in clause (a) or (b) of Section 6.01 occurs and is continuing, the Trustee may recover judgment in its own name and as trustee of an express trust against the Company or another obligor on the Securities for the whole amount of principal, and accrued interest remaining unpaid, if any, together with, to the extent that payment of such interest is lawful, interest on overdue principal, on overdue installments of interest, if any, in each case at the Default Rate, and such further amount as shall be sufficient to cover the costs and expenses of collection, including the reasonable compensation, expenses, disbursements and advances of the Trustee, its agents and counsel.
 
SECTION 6.04.          Trustee May File Proofs of Claim.
 
In case of the pendency of any receivership, insolvency, liquidation, bankruptcy, reorganization, arrangement, adjustment, composition or other judicial proceeding relative to the Company or any other obligor upon the Securities or the property of the Company or of such other obligor or their creditors, the Trustee (irrespective of whether the principal of the Securities shall then be due and payable as therein expressed or by declaration or otherwise and irrespective of whether the Trustee shall have made any demand on the Company for the payment of overdue principal or interest) shall be entitled and empowered, by intervention in such proceeding or otherwise,
 
(a)          to file and prove a claim for the whole amount of principal and interest owing and unpaid in respect of the Securities and to file such other papers or documents as may be necessary or advisable in order to have the claims of the Trustee (including any claim for the reasonable compensation, expenses, disbursements and advances of the Trustee, its agents and counsel) and of the Holders allowed in such judicial proceeding, and
 
(b)          to collect and receive any moneys or other property payable or deliverable on any such claims and to distribute the same, and any custodian, receiver, assignee, trustee, liquidator, sequestrator or other similar official in any such judicial proceeding is hereby authorized by each Holder to make such payments to the Trustee and, in the event that the Trustee shall consent to the making of such payments directly to the Holders, to pay to the Trustee any amount due it for the reasonable compensation, expenses, disbursements and advances of the Trustee, its agents and counsel, and any other amounts due the Trustee under Section 7.07.
 

25


 
Nothing herein contained shall be deemed to authorize the Trustee to authorize or consent to or accept or adopt on behalf of any Holder any plan of reorganization, arrangement, adjustment or composition affecting the Securities or the rights of any Holder thereof or to authorize the Trustee to vote in respect of the claim of any Holder in any such proceeding.
 
SECTION 6.05.          Trustee May Enforce Claims Without Possession of Securities.
 
All rights of action and claims under this Indenture or the Securities may be prosecuted and enforced by the Trustee without the possession of any of the Securities or the production thereof in any proceeding relating thereto, and any such proceeding instituted by the Trustee shall be brought in its own name as trustee of an express trust, and any recovery of judgment shall, after provision for the payment of the reasonable compensation, expenses, disbursements and advances of the Trustee, its agents and counsel, be for the ratable benefit of the Holders of the Securities in respect of which such judgment has been recovered.
 
SECTION 6.06.          Application of Money Collected.
 
Any money collected by the Trustee pursuant to this Article shall be applied in the following order, at the date or dates fixed by the Trustee and, in case of the distribution of such money on account of principal or interest, upon presentation of the Securities and the notation thereon of the payment if only partially paid and upon surrender thereof if fully paid: and
 
First: To the payment of all amounts due the Trustee under Section 7.07;
 
Second: To the payment of the amounts then due and unpaid for principal of and interest on the Securities in respect of which or for the benefit of which such money has been collected, ratably, without preference or priority of any kind, according to the amounts due and payable on such Securities for principal and interest, respectively; and
 
Third: To the Company.
 
SECTION 6.07.          Limitation on Suits.
 
No Holder of any Security of any Series shall have any right to institute any proceeding, judicial or otherwise, with respect to this Indenture, or for the appointment of a receiver or trustee, or for any other remedy hereunder (except actions for payment of overdue principal and interest), unless:
 
(a)          such Holder has previously given written notice to the Trustee of a continuing Event of Default with respect to the Securities of that Series;
 
(b)          the Holders of not less than [  ]% in principal amount of the outstanding Securities of that Series shall have made written request to the Trustee to institute proceedings in respect of such Event of Default in its own name as Trustee hereunder;
 
(c)          such Holder or Holders have offered to the Trustee indemnity satisfactory to it against the costs, expenses and liabilities to be incurred in compliance with such request;
 
 

26


 
(d)          the Trustee for [  ] days after its receipt of such notice, request and offer of indemnity has failed to institute any such proceeding; and
 
(e)          no direction inconsistent with such written request has been given to the Trustee during such [  ]-day period by the Holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding Securities of that Series; it being understood and intended that no one or more of such Holders shall have any right in any manner whatever by virtue of, or by availing of, any provision of this Indenture to affect, disturb or prejudice the rights of any other of such Holders, or to obtain or to seek to obtain priority or preference over any other of such Holders or to enforce any right under this Indenture, except in the manner herein provided and for the equal and ratable benefit of all such Holders.
 
SECTION 6.08.          Unconditional Right of Holders to Receive Principal and Interest.
 
Notwithstanding any other provision in this Indenture, the Holder of any Security shall have the right, which is absolute and unconditional, to receive payment of the principal of and interest, if any, on such Security on the Stated Maturity or Stated Maturities expressed in such Security (or, in the case of redemption, on the redemption date) and to institute suit for the enforcement of any such payment, and such rights shall not be impaired without the consent of such Holder.
 
SECTION 6.09.          Restoration of Rights and Remedies.
 
If the Trustee or any Holder has instituted any proceeding to enforce any right or remedy under this Indenture and such proceeding has been discontinued or abandoned for any reason, or has been determined adversely to the Trustee or to such Holder, then and in every such case, subject to any determination in such proceeding, the Company, the Trustee and the Holders shall be restored severally and respectively to their former positions hereunder and thereafter all rights and remedies of the Trustee and the Holders shall continue as though no such proceeding had been instituted.
 
SECTION 6.10.          Rights and Remedies Cumulative.
 
Except as otherwise provided with respect to the replacement or payment of mutilated, destroyed, lost or stolen Securities in Section 2.08, no right or remedy herein conferred upon or reserved to the Trustee or to the Holders is intended to be exclusive of any other right or remedy, and every right and remedy shall, to the extent permitted by law, be cumulative and in addition to every other right and remedy given hereunder or now or hereafter existing at law or in equity or otherwise.  The assertion or employment of any right or remedy hereunder, or otherwise, shall not prevent the concurrent assertion or employment of any other appropriate right or remedy.
 
SECTION 6.11.          Delay or Omission Not Waiver.
 
No delay or omission of the Trustee or of any Holder of any Securities to exercise any right or remedy accruing upon any Event of Default shall impair any such right or remedy or constitute a waiver of any such Event of Default or an acquiescence therein.  Every right and remedy given by this Article or by law to the Trustee or to the Holders may be exercised from time to time, and as often as may be deemed expedient, by the Trustee or by the Holders, as the case may be.
 
 

27


 
SECTION 6.12.          Control by Holders.
 
The Holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding Securities of any Series shall have the right to direct the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the Trustee, or exercising any trust or power conferred on the Trustee, with respect to the Securities of such Series, provided that
 
(a)          such direction shall not be in conflict with any rule of law or with this Indenture,
 
(b)          the Trustee may take any other action deemed proper by the Trustee which is not inconsistent with such direction; and
 
(c)          subject to the provisions of Section 6.01, the Trustee shall have the right to decline to follow any such direction if the Trustee in good faith shall, by a Responsible Officer of the Trustee, determine that the proceeding so directed would involve the Trustee in personal liability or would be unduly prejudicial to the rights of another Holder or the Trustee.
 
SECTION 6.13.          Waiver of Past Defaults.
 
Subject to Section 9.02, the Holders of not less than a majority in principal amount of the outstanding Securities of any Series may on behalf of the Holders of all the Securities of such Series waive any past Default hereunder with respect to such Series and its consequences, except a Default in the payment of the principal of or interest on any Security of such Series (provided, however, that the Holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding Securities of any Series may rescind an acceleration and its consequences, including any related payment default that resulted from such acceleration).  Upon any such waiver, such Default shall cease to exist, and any Event of Default arising therefrom shall be deemed to have been cured, for every purpose of this Indenture; but no such waiver shall extend to any subsequent or other Default or impair any right consequent thereon.
 
SECTION 6.14.          Undertaking for Costs.
 
All parties to this Indenture agree, and each Holder of any Security by his acceptance thereof shall be deemed to have agreed, that any court may in its discretion require, in any suit for the enforcement of any right or remedy under this Indenture, or in any suit against the Trustee for any action taken, suffered or omitted by it as Trustee, the filing by any party litigant in such suit of an undertaking to pay the costs of such suit, and that such court may in its discretion assess reasonable costs, including reasonable attorneys' fees, against any party litigant in such suit, having due regard to the merits and good faith of the claims or defenses made by such party litigant; but the provisions of this Section shall not apply to any suit instituted by the Company, to any suit instituted by the Trustee, to any suit instituted by any Holder, or group of Holders, holding in the aggregate more than [  ]% in principal amount of the outstanding Securities of any Series, or to any suit instituted by any Holder for the enforcement of the payment of the principal of or interest on any Security on or after the Stated Maturity or Stated Maturities expressed in such Security (or, in the case of redemption, on the redemption date).
 

28


 
ARTICLE VII

TRUSTEE
 
SECTION 7.01.          Duties of Trustee.
 
(a)          If an Event of Default has occurred and is continuing, the Trustee shall exercise the rights and powers vested in it by this Indenture and use the same degree of care and skill in their exercise as a prudent person would exercise or use under the circumstances in the conduct of his own affairs.
 
(b)          Except during the continuance of an Event of Default:
 
(i)          The Trustee  need perform only those duties that are specifically set forth in this Indenture and no implied duties, covenants or obligations shall be deemed to be imposed upon the Trustee.
 
(ii)          in the absence of bad faith on its part, the Trustee may conclusively rely, as to the truth of the statements and the correctness of the opinions expressed therein, upon Officers' Certificates or Opinions of Counsel furnished to the Trustee and conforming to the requirements of this Indenture; however, in the case of any such Officers' Certificates or Opinions of Counsel which by any provisions hereof are specifically required to be furnished to the Trustee, the Trustee shall examine such Officers' Certificates and Opinions of Counsel to determine whether or not they conform on their face to the requirements of this Indenture.
 
(c)          The Trustee may not be relieved from liability for its own its own negligent action, its own negligent failure to act or willful misconduct, except that:
 
(i)          This paragraph does not limit the effect of paragraph (b) of Section 7.01 herein.
 
(ii)         The Trustee shall not be liable for any error of judgment made in good faith by a Responsible Officer.
 
(iii)        The Trustee shall not be liable with respect to any action taken, suffered or omitted to be taken by it with respect to Securities of any Series in good faith in accordance with the direction of the Holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding Securities of such Series relating to the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the Trustee, or exercising any trust or power conferred upon the Trustee, under this Indenture with respect to the Securities of such Series.
 
(d)          Every provision of this Indenture that in any way relates to the Trustee is subject to paragraph (a), (b) and (c) of this Section.
 



 

29


 
(e)          The Trustee may refuse to perform any duty or exercise any right or power unless it receives an indemnity satisfactory to it against any loss, liability or expense.
 
(f)          The Trustee shall not be liable for interest on any money received by it except as the Trustee may agree in writing with the Company.  Money held in trust by the Trustee need not be segregated from other funds except to the extent required by law.
 
(g)          No provision of this Indenture shall require the Trustee to risk or expend its own funds or otherwise incur liability, financial or otherwise, in the performance of any of its duties, or in the exercise of any of its rights or powers, if it shall have reasonable grounds for believing that repayment of such funds or indemnity satisfactory to it against such risk is not reasonably assured to it.
 
(h)          The Paying Agent, the Registrar and any authenticating agent shall be entitled to the same rights, indemnities, protections and immunities afforded to the Trustee.
 
(i)          The Trustee shall have no duty to monitor the performance or compliance of the Company with its obligations hereunder or any under supplement hereto, nor shall it have any liability in connection with the malfeasance or nonfeasance by the Company.  The Trustee shall have no liability in connection with compliance by the Company with statutory or regulatory requirements related to this Indenture, any supplement or any Securities issued pursuant hereto or thereto.
 
SECTION 7.02.          Rights of Trustee.
 
(a)          The Trustee may conclusively rely on and shall be fully protected in acting or refraining from acting as a result of its reasonable belief that any resolution, certificate, statement, instrument, opinion, report, notice, request, consent, order, direction, approval or other paper or document was genuine and had been signed or presented by the proper person.  The Trustee need not investigate any fact or matter stated in the document, but the Trustee, in its discretion, may make such further inquiry or investigation into such facts or matters as it sees fit.
 
(b)          Before the Trustee acts or refrains from acting, it may require an Officers' Certificate or an Opinion of Counsel or both.  The Trustee shall not be liable for any action it takes or omits to take in good faith in reliance on such Officers' Certificate or Opinion of Counsel.
 
(c)          The Trustee may act through agents and shall not be responsible for the misconduct or negligence of, or for the supervision of, any agent appointed with due care.  No Depository shall be deemed an agent of the Trustee and the Trustee shall not be responsible for any act or omission by any Depository.
 
(d)          The Trustee shall not be liable for any action it takes or omits to take in good faith which it believes to be authorized or within its rights or powers.
 
(e)          The Trustee may consult with counsel of its selection and the advice of such counsel or any Opinion of Counsel shall be full and complete authorization and protection in respect of any action taken, suffered or omitted by it hereunder in good faith and in reliance thereon.
 

30


 
(f)          The Trustee shall be under no obligation to exercise any of the rights or powers vested in it by or pursuant to this Indenture at the request, order or direction of any of the Holders of Securities, unless such Holders shall have offered to the Trustee reasonable security or indemnity satisfactory to it against the costs, expenses and liabilities which might be incurred by it in compliance with such request or direction.
 
SECTION 7.03.          Individual Rights of Trustee.
 
The Trustee, in its individual or any other capacity, may become the owner or pledgee of Securities and may otherwise deal with the Company or an Affiliate with the same rights it would have if it were not Trustee.  Any Agent may do the same with like rights.  The Trustee is also subject to Sections 7.10 and 7.11.
 
SECTION 7.04.          Trustee's Disclaimer.
 
The Trustee makes no representation as to the validity or adequacy of this Indenture or the Securities and the recitals contained herein and in the Securities shall be taken as statements of the Company and not of the Trustee, and the Trustee has no responsibility for such recitals. The Trustee shall not be accountable for the Company's use or application of the proceeds from the Securities or for monies paid over to the Company pursuant to this Indenture, and it shall not be responsible for any statement in the Securities other than its authentication.
 
SECTION 7.05.          Notice of Defaults.
 
If a Default or Event of Default occurs and is continuing with respect to the Securities of any Series and if a Responsible Officer of the Trustee has knowledge or receives written notice of such event, the Trustee shall mail to each Securityholder of the Securities of that Series, notice of a Default or Event of Default within [  ] days after it occurs or, if later, after a Responsible Officer of the Trustee has actual knowledge of such Default or Event of Default.  Except in the case of a Default or Event of Default in payment of principal of or interest on any Security of any Series, including any additional interest that may become payable pursuant to Section 6.02(b), the Trustee may withhold the notice so long as the Trustee in good faith determines that withholding the notice is in the interests of Securityholders of that Series.
 
SECTION 7.06.          Reports by Trustee to Holders.
 
Within [  ] days after [          ] in each year, the Trustee shall transmit by mail to all Securityholders, as their names and addresses appear on the register kept by the Registrar, a brief report dated as of such [          ], in accordance with, and to the extent required under, TIA Section 313.
 
A copy of each report at the time of its mailing to Securityholders of any Series shall be filed with the SEC and each stock exchange on which the Securities of that Series are listed.  The Company shall promptly notify the Trustee when Securities of any Series are listed on any stock exchange.
 
 
 

31


 
SECTION 7.07.          Compensation and Indemnity.
 
The Company shall pay to the Trustee from time to time such compensation for its services as shall be agreed upon in writing.  The Trustee's compensation shall not be limited by any law on compensation of a trustee of an express trust.  The Company shall reimburse the Trustee upon request for all reasonable out-of-pocket expenses, disbursements and advances incurred by it.  Such expenses shall include the reasonable compensation and expenses of the Trustee's agents, counsel and other persons not regularly in its employ.
 
The Company shall indemnify, defend and hold harmless the Trustee and its officers, directors, employees, representatives and agents, from and against and reimburse the Trustee for any and all claims, expenses, obligations, liabilities, losses, damages, injuries (to person, property, or natural resources), penalties, stamp or other similar taxes, actions, suits, judgments, reasonable costs and expenses (including reasonable attorney's and agent's fees and expenses) of whatever kind or nature regardless of their merit, demanded, asserted or claimed against the Trustee directly or indirectly relating to, or arising from, claims against the Trustee by reason of its participation in the transactions contemplated hereby, including without limitation all reasonable costs required to be associated with claims for damages to persons or property, and reasonable attorneys' and consultants' fees and expenses and court costs except to the extent caused by the Trustee's negligence or willful misconduct.  The provisions of this Section 7.07 shall survive the termination of this Agreement or the earlier resignation or removal of the Trustee.  The Company shall defend any claim and the Trustee shall cooperate in the defense.  The Trustee may have separate counsel and the Company shall pay the reasonable fees and expenses of such counsel.  The Company need not pay for any settlement made without its consent, which consent shall not be unreasonably withheld or delayed.  This indemnification shall apply to officers, directors, employees, shareholders and agents of the Trustee.
 
The Company need not reimburse any expense or indemnify against any loss liability incurred by the Trustee or by any officer, director, employee, shareholder or agent of the Trustee through negligence or bad faith.
 
To secure the Company's payment obligations in this Section, the Trustee shall have a lien prior to the Securities of any Series on all money or property held or collected by the Trustee, except that held in trust to pay principal and interest on particular Securities of that Series.
 
When the Trustee incurs expenses or renders services after an Event of Default specified in Section 6.01(f) or (g) occurs, the expenses and the compensation for the services are intended to constitute expenses of administration under any Bankruptcy Law.
 
SECTION 7.08.          Replacement of Trustee.
 
A resignation or removal of the Trustee and appointment of a successor Trustee shall become effective only upon the successor Trustee's acceptance of appointment as provided in this Section.
 
The Trustee may resign with respect to the Securities of one or more Series by so notifying the Company.  The Holders of a majority in principal amount of the Securities of any Series may remove the Trustee with respect to that Series by so notifying the Trustee and the Company.  The Company may remove the Trustee with respect to Securities of one or more Series if:
 

32


 
(a)          the Trustee fails to comply with Section 7.10;
 
(b)          the Trustee is adjudged a bankrupt or an insolvent or an order for relief is entered with respect to the Trustee under any Bankruptcy Law;
 
(c)          a Custodian or public officer takes charge of the Trustee or its property; or
 
(d)          the Trustee becomes incapable of acting.
 
If the Trustee resigns or is removed or if a vacancy exists in the office of Trustee for any reason, the Company shall promptly appoint a successor Trustee.  Within one year after the successor Trustee takes office, the Holders of a majority in principal amount of the then outstanding Securities may appoint a successor Trustee to replace the successor Trustee appointed by the Company.
 
If a successor Trustee with respect to the Securities of any one or more Series does not take office within [  ] days after the retiring Trustee resigns or is removed, the retiring Trustee, the Company or the Holders of at least [  ]% in principal amount of the Securities of the applicable Series may petition any court of competent jurisdiction for the appointment of a successor Trustee.
 
A successor Trustee shall deliver a written acceptance of its appointment to the retiring Trustee and to the Company.  Immediately after that, the retiring Trustee shall transfer all property held by it as Trustee to the successor Trustee subject to the lien provided for in Section 7.07, and subject to the payment of any and all amounts then due and owing to the retiring Trustee, the resignation or removal of the retiring Trustee shall become effective, and the successor Trustee shall have all the rights, powers and duties of the Trustee with respect to each Series of Securities for which it is acting as Trustee under this Indenture.  A successor Trustee shall mail a notice of its succession to each Securityholder of each such Series.  Notwithstanding replacement of the Trustee pursuant to this Section 7.08, the Company's obligations under Section 7.07 hereof shall continue for the benefit of the retiring trustee with respect to expenses and liabilities incurred by it prior to such replacement.
 
SECTION 7.09.          Successor Trustee by Merger, etc.
 
If the Trustee consolidates with, merges or converts into, or transfers all or substantially all of its corporate trust business to, another corporation, the successor corporation without any further act shall be the successor Trustee with the same effect as if the successor Trustee had been named as the Trustee herein.
 
SECTION 7.10.          Eligibility; Disqualification.
 
This Indenture shall always have a Trustee who satisfies the requirements of TIA Section 310(a)(1), (2) and (5).  The Trustee shall always have a combined capital and surplus of at least $25,000,000 as set forth in its most recent published annual report of condition.  The Trustee shall comply with TIA Section 310(b).
 
 

33


 
SECTION 7.11.          Preferential Collection of Claims Against Company.
 
The Trustee is subject to TIA Section 311(a), excluding any creditor relationship listed in TIA Section 311(b).  A Trustee who has resigned or been removed shall be subject to TTA Section 311(a) to the extent indicated.
 

ARTICLE VIII

SATISFACTION AND DISCHARGE; DEFEASANCE
 
SECTION 8.01.          Satisfaction and Discharge of Indenture.
 
This Indenture shall upon Company Order cease to be of further effect (except as hereinafter provided in this Section 8.01), and the Trustee, on the demand of and at the expense of the Company, shall execute proper instruments acknowledging satisfaction and discharge of this Indenture, when
 
(a)          either
 
(i)          all Securities theretofore authenticated and delivered (other than Securities that have been destroyed, lost or stolen and that have been replaced or paid) have been delivered to the Trustee for cancellation; or
 
(ii)          all such Securities not theretofore delivered to the Trustee for cancellation have become due and payable, or
 
(1)          have become due and payable, or
 
(2)          will become due and payable at their Stated Maturity within [          ], or
 
(3)          are to be called for redemption within [          ] under arrangements satisfactory to the Trustee for the giving of notice of redemption by the Trustee in the name, and at the expense, of the Company, or
 
(4)          are deemed paid and discharged pursuant to section 8.03, as applicable; and the Company, in the case of (1), (2) or (3) above, has deposited or caused to be deposited with the Trustee as trust funds in trust an amount sufficient for the purpose of paying and discharging the entire indebtedness on such Securities not theretofore delivered to the Trustee for cancellation, for principal and interest to the date of such deposit (in the case of Securities which have become due and payable on or prior to the date of such deposit) or to the Stated Maturity or redemption date, as the case may be;
 

34


 
(b)          the Company has paid or caused to be paid all other sums payable hereunder by the Company; and
 
(c)          the Company has delivered to the Trustee an Officers' Certificate and an Opinion of Counsel, each meeting the applicable requirements of Sections 10.04 and 10.05 and each stating that all conditions precedent herein relating to the satisfaction and discharge of this Indenture have been complied with and the Trustee receives written demand from the Company to discharge.
 
Notwithstanding the satisfaction and discharge of this Indenture, the obligations of the Company to the Trustee under Section 7.07, and, if money shall have been deposited with the Trustee pursuant to clause (a) of this Section, the provisions of Sections 2.04, 2.07, 2.08, 8.01 8.02 and 8.05 shall survive.
 
SECTION 8.02.          Application of Trust Funds; Indemnification.
 
(a)          Subject to the provisions of Section 8.05, all money deposited with the Trustee pursuant to Section 8.01, all money and U.S. Government Obligations or Foreign Government Obligations deposited with the Trustee pursuant to Section 8.03 or 8.04 and all money received by the Trustee in respect of U.S. Government Obligations or Foreign Government Obligations deposited with the Trustee pursuant to Section 8.03 or 8.04, shall be held in trust and applied by it, in accordance with the provisions of the Securities and this Indenture, to the payment, either directly or through any Paying Agent (including the Company acting as its own Paying Agent) as the Trustee may determine, to the persons entitled thereto, of the principal and interest for whose payment such money has been deposited with or received by the Trustee or to make mandatory sinking fund payments or analogous payments as contemplated by Sections 8.03 or 8.04.
 
(b)          The Company shall pay and shall indemnify the Trustee and the Agents against any tax, fee or other charge imposed on or assessed against U.S. Government Obligations or Foreign Government Obligations deposited pursuant to Sections 8.03 or 8.04 or the interest and principal received in respect of such obligations other than any payable by or on behalf of Holders.
 
(c)          The Trustee shall, in accordance with the terms of this Indenture, deliver or pay to the Company from time to time, upon Company Request and at the expense of the Company any U.S. Government Obligations or Foreign Government Obligations or money held by it pursuant to this Indenture as provided in Sections 8.03 or 8.04 which, in the opinion of a nationally recognized firm of independent certified public accountants, expressed in a written certification thereof and delivered to the Trustee together with such Company Request, are then in excess of the amount thereof which then would have been required to be deposited for the purpose for which such U.S. Government Obligations or Foreign Government Obligations or money were deposited or received.  This provision shall not authorize the sale by the Trustee of any U.S. Government Obligations or Foreign Government Obligations held under this Indenture.
 

35


 
SECTION 8.03.          Legal Defeasance of Securities of any Series.
 
Unless this Section 8.03 is otherwise specified, pursuant to Section 2.02(s), to be inapplicable to Securities of any Series, the Company shall be deemed to have paid and discharged the entire indebtedness on all the outstanding Securities of such Series on the [   ] day after the date of the deposit referred to in subparagraph (d) hereof, and the provisions of this Indenture, as it relates to such outstanding Securities of such Series, shall no longer be in effect (and the Trustee, at the expense of the company, shall, at Company Request, execute proper instruments acknowledging the same), except as to:
 
(a)          the rights of Holders of Securities of such Series to receive, from the trust funds described in subparagraph (d) hereof, (i) payment of the principal of and each installment of principal of and interest on the outstanding Securities of such Series on the Stated Maturity of such principal or installment of principal or interest and (ii) the benefit of any mandatory sinking fund payments applicable to the Securities of such Series on the day on which such payments are due and payable in accordance with the terms of this Indenture and the Securities of such Series;
 
(b)          the provisions of Sections 2.04, 2.07, 2.08, 2.14, 8.02, 8.03 and 8.05; and
 
(c)          the rights, powers, trust and immunities of the Trustee hereunder; provided that, the following conditions shall have been satisfied:
 
(d)          the Company shall have deposited or caused to be deposited irrevocably with the Paying Agent as trust funds in trust for the purpose of making the following payments, specifically pledged as security for and dedicated solely to the benefit of the Holders of such Securities in the case of Securities of such Series denominated in Dollars, cash in Dollars (or such other money or currencies as shall then be legal tender in the United States) and/or U.S. Government Obligations, or (ii) in the case of Securities of such Series denominated in a Foreign Currency (other than a composite currency), money and/or Foreign Government Obligations, which through the payment of interest and principal in respect thereof, in accordance with their terms, will provide (and without reinvestment and assuming no tax liability will be imposed on such Paying Agent), not later than [   ] day before the due date of any payment of money, an amount in cash, sufficient, in the opinion of a nationally recognized firm of independent public accountants expressed in a written certification thereof delivered to the Trustee and the Paying Agent, to pay and discharge each installment of principal (including mandatory sinking fund or analogous payments) of and interest, if any, on all the Securities of such Series on the dates such installments of interest or principal are due;
 
(e)          such deposit will not result in a breach or violation of, or constitute a default under, this Indenture or any other agreement or instrument to which the Company is a party or by which it is bound;
 
(f)          no Default or Event of Default with respect to the Securities of such Series shall have occurred and be continuing on the date of such deposit or during the period ending on the [    ] day after such date;
 
 

36


 
(g)          the Company shall have delivered to the Trustee an Officers' Certificate and an Opinion of Counsel to the effect that (i) the Company has received from, or there has been published by, the Internal Revenue Service a ruling, or (ii) since the date of execution of this Indenture, there has been a change in the applicable Federal income tax law, in either case to the effect that, and based thereon such Opinion of Counsel shall confirm that, the Holders of the Securities of such Series will not recognize income, gain or loss for Federal income tax purposes as a result of such deposit, defeasance and discharge and will be subject to Federal income tax on the same amount and in the same manner and at the same times as would have been the case if such deposit, defeasance and discharge had not occurred;
 
(h)          the Company shall have delivered to the Trustee an Officers' Certificate stating that the deposit was not made by the Company with the intent of preferring the Holders of the Securities of such Series over any other creditors of the company or with the intent of defeating, hindering, delaying or defrauding any other creditors of the Company;
 
(i)          such deposit shall not result in the trust arising from such deposit constituting an investment company (as defined in the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended), or such trust shall be qualified under such Act or exempt from regulation thereunder; and
 
(j)          the Company shall have delivered to the Trustee an Officers' Certificate and an Opinion of Counsel, each stating that all conditions precedent provided for relating to the defeasance contemplated by this Section have been complied with.
 
SECTION 8.04.          Covenant Defeasance.
 
Unless this Section 8.04 is otherwise specified pursuant to Section 2.02(s) to be inapplicable to Securities of any Series, on and after the [    ] day after the date of the deposit referred to in subparagraph (a) hereof, the Company may omit to comply with any term, provision or condition set forth under Sections 4.02, 4.03, 4.04, 4.05, 4.06, and 5.01 as well as any additional covenants contained in a supplemental indenture hereto for a particular Series of Securities or a Board Resolution or an Officers' Certificate delivered pursuant to Section 2.02(s) (and the failure to comply with any such covenants shall not constitute a Default or Event of Default under Section 6.01) and the occurrence of any event described in clause (e) of Section 6.01 shall not constitute a Default or Event of Default hereunder, with respect to the Securities of such Series, provided that the following conditions shall have been satisfied:
 
(a)          With reference to this Section 8.04, the Company has deposited or caused to be irrevocably deposited (except as provided in Section 8.02(c)) with the Paying Agent as trust funds in trust, specifically pledged as security for, and dedicated solely to, the benefit of the Holders of such Securities (i) in the case of Securities of such Series denominated in Dollars, cash in Dollars (or such other money or currencies as shall then be legal tender in the United States) and/or U.S. Government Obligations, or (ii) in the case of Securities of such Series denominated in a Foreign Currency (other than a composite currency), money and/or Foreign Government Obligations, which through the payment of interest and principal in respect thereof, in accordance with their terms, will provide (and without reinvestment and assuming no tax liability will be imposed on such Paying Agent), not later than [   ] day before the due date of any payment of money, an amount in cash, sufficient, in the opinion of a nationally recognized firm of independent certified public accountants expressed in a written certification thereof delivered to the Paying Agent, to pay principal and interest, if any, on and any mandatory sinking fund in respect of the Securities of such Series on the dates such installments of interest or principal are due;
 
 
 

37


 
(b)          Such deposit will not result in a breach or violation of, or constitute a default under, this Indenture or any other agreement or instrument to which the Company is a party or by which it is bound;
 
(c)          No Default or Event of Default with respect to the Securities of such Series shall have occurred and be continuing on the date of such deposit or during the period ending on the [    ] day after such date;
 
(d)          the company shall have delivered to the Trustee an Opinion of Counsel confirming that Holders of the Securities of such Series will not recognize income, gain or loss for federal income tax purposes as a result of such deposit and defeasance and will be subject to federal income tax on the same amounts, in the same manner and at the same times as would have been the case if such deposit and defeasance had not occurred;
 
(e)          the Company shall have delivered to the Trustee an Officers' Certificate stating the deposit was not made by the Company with the intent of preferring the Holders of the Securities of such Series over any other creditors of the Company or with the intent of defeating, hindering, delaying or defrauding any other creditors of the Company; and
 
(f)          The Company shall have delivered to the Trustee an Officers' Certificate and an Opinion of Counsel, each stating that all conditions precedent herein provided for relating to the defeasance contemplated by this Section have been complied with.
 
SECTION 8.05.          Repayment to Company.
 
The Paying Agent shall pay to the Company upon request any money held by them for the payment of principal and interest that remains unclaimed for two years.  After that, Securityholders entitled to the money must look to the Company for payment as general creditors unless an applicable abandoned property law designates another person and all liability of the Paying Agent with respect to that money shall cease.
 

ARTICLE IX

AMENDMENTS AND WAIVERS
 
SECTION 9.01.          Without Consent of Holders.
 
The Company and the Trustee may amend or supplement this Indenture or the Securities of one or more Series without the consent of any Securityholder:
 
(a)          to cure any ambiguity, defect or inconsistency;
 
(b)          to comply with Article V;
 
 
 

38


 
(c)          to provide for uncertificated Securities in addition to or in place of certificated Securities;
 
(d)          to make any change that does not adversely affect the rights of any Securityholder;
 
(e)          to provide for the issuance of and establish the form and terms and conditions of Securities of any Series as permitted by this Indenture;
 
(f)          to evidence and provide for the acceptance of appointment hereunder by a successor Trustee with respect to the Securities of one or more Series and to add to or change any of the provisions of this Indenture as shall be necessary to provide for or facilitate the administration of the trusts hereunder by more than one Trustee;
 
(g)          to comply with requirements of the TIA and any rules promulgated under the TIA; and
 
(h)          to add to the covenants of the Company for the equal and ratable benefit of the Holders or to surrender any right, power or option conferred upon the Company.
 
Any amendment or supplement made solely to conform the provisions of this Indenture or the Securities of any Series to the description thereof contained in the final prospectus relating to such Series will be deemed not to adversely affect the rights of any Holder.
 
SECTION 9.02.          With Consent of Holders.
 
The Company and the Trustee may enter into a supplemental indenture with the written consent of the Holders of at least a majority in principal amount of the outstanding Securities of all Series affected by such supplemental indenture, taken together as one class (including consents obtained in connection with a tender offer or exchange offer for the Securities of such Series), for the purpose of adding any provisions to or changing in any manner or eliminating any of the provisions of this Indenture or of any supplemental indenture or of modifying in any manner the rights of the Securityholders of each such Series.  Except as provided in Section 6.13, the Holders of at least a majority in principal amount of the outstanding Securities of all Series affected by such waiver by notice to the Trustee, taken together as one class (including consents obtained in connection with a tender offer or exchange offer for the Securities of such Series) may waive compliance by the Company with any provision of this Indenture or the Securities with respect to such Series.
 
It shall not be necessary for the consent of the Holders of Securities under this Section 9.02 to approve the particular form of any proposed supplemental indenture or waiver, but it shall be sufficient if such consent approves the substance thereof.  After a supplemental indenture or waiver under this section becomes effective, the Company shall mail to the Holders of Securities affected thereby a notice briefly describing the supplemental indenture or waiver.  Any failure by the Company to mail or publish such notice, or any defect therein, shall not, however, in any way impair or affect the validity of any such supplemental indenture or waiver.
 
 

39


 
SECTION 9.03.          Limitations.
 
Without the consent of each Securityholder affected, an amendment or waiver may not:
 
(a)          change the amount of Securities whose Holders must consent to an amendment, supplement or waiver, except to increase any such amount or to provide that certain provisions of this Indenture cannot be modified, amended or waived without the consent of the Holder of each outstanding Security affected thereby;
 
(b)          reduce the amount of interest, or change the interest payment time, on any Security;
 
(c)          waive a redemption payment or alter the redemption provisions (other than any alteration that would not materially adversely affect the legal rights of any Holder under this Indenture) or the price at which the Company is required to offer to purchase the Securities;
 
(d)          reduce the principal or change the Stated Maturity of any Security or reduce the amount of, or postpone the date fixed for, the payment of any sinking fund or analogous obligation;
 
(e)          reduce the principal amount payable of any Security upon Maturity;
 
(f)           waive a Default or Event of Default in the payment of the principal of or interest, if any, on any Security (except a rescission of acceleration of the Securities of any Series by the Holders of at least a majority in principal amount of the outstanding Securities of such Series and a waiver of the payment default that resulted from such acceleration);
 
(g)          change the place or currency of payment of principal of or interest, if any, on any Security other than that stated in the Security;
 
(h)          impair the right of any Holder to receive payment of principal or, or interest on, the Securities of such Holder on or after the due dates therefor;
 
(i)           impair the right to institute suit for the enforcement of any payment on, or with respect to, any Security;
 
(j)           make any change in Sections 10.15 or 10.16;
 
(k)          change the ranking of the Securities; or
 
(l)           make any other change which is specified in a Board Resolution, a supplemental indenture hereto or an Officers' Certificate as a limitation under this Section.
 
SECTION 9.04.          Compliance with Trust Indenture Act.
 
Every amendment to this Indenture or the Securities of one or more Series shall be set forth in a supplemental indenture hereto that complies with the TIA as then in effect.
 
 
 

40


 
SECTION 9.05.          Revocation and Effect of Consents.
 
Until an amendment or waiver becomes effective, a consent to it by a Holder of a Security is a continuing consent by the Holder and every subsequent Holder of a Security or portion of a Security that evidences the same debt as the consenting Holder's Security, even if notation of the consent is not made on any Security.  However, any such Holder or subsequent Holder may revoke the consent as to his Security or portion of a Security if the Trustee receives the notice of revocation before the date the amendment or waiver becomes effective.
 
Any amendment or waiver once effective shall bind every Securityholder of each Series affected by such amendment or waiver unless it is of the type described in any of clauses (a) through (g) of Section 9.03 in that case, the amendment or waiver shall bind each Holder of a Security who has consented to it and every subsequent Holder of a Security or portion of a Security that evidences the same debt as the consenting Holder's Security.
 
SECTION 9.06.          Notation on or Exchange of Securities.
 
If an amendment, supplement or waiver changes the terms of a Security, the Trustee may require the Holder of the Security to deliver it to the Trustee and the Trustee may place an appropriate notation on the Security about the changed terms and return it to the Holder.  Alternatively, if the Company or the Trustee so determines, the Company shall issue and the Trustee shall authenticate upon request new Securities of that Series that reflect the changed terms.
 
SECTION 9.07.          Trustee Protected.
 
In executing, or accepting the additional trusts created by, any supplemental indenture permitted by this Article or the modifications thereby of the trusts created by this Indenture, the Trustee shall be entitled to receive, and (subject to Section 7.01) shall be fully protected in relying upon, an Opinion of Counsel or an Officer's Certificate, or both stating that the execution of such supplemental indenture is authorized or permitted by this Indenture.  The Trustee shall sign all supplemental indentures, except that the Trustee need not sign any supplemental indenture that adversely affects its rights, duties or indemnities.
 
SECTION 9.08.          Effect of Supplemental Indenture.
 
Upon the execution of any supplemental indenture under this Article, this Indenture shall be modified in accordance therewith, and each such supplemental indenture shall form part of this Indenture for all purposes with respect to the relevant Series; and every Holder of Securities of the relevant Series theretofore or thereafter authenticated and delivered hereunder shall be bound thereby.
 

 
 

41


 
ARTICLE X


MISCELLANEOUS
 
SECTION 10.01.          Trust Indenture Act Controls.
 

If any provision of this Indenture limits, qualifies, or conflicts with another provision which is required or deemed to be included in this Indenture by the TIA, such required or deemed provision shall control.
 
SECTION 10.02.          Notices.
 
Any notice or communication by the Company, the Trustee, the Paying Agent or the Registrar to another is duly given if in writing and delivered in person or mailed by first-class mail:
 
if to the Company:
 
[          ]
Attn: [          ]
Fax: [            ]
 

if to the Trustee:
 
[          ]
Attn: [          ]
Fax: [            ]
 
if to the Registrar or Paying Agent:
 
[          ]
Attn: [          ]
Fax: [            ]

with copy to:

[          ]
Attn: [          ]
Fax: [            ]

The Company, the Trustee and each Agent by notice to each other may designate additional or different addresses for subsequent notices or communications.
 

42


 
Any notice or communication to a Securityholder shall be mailed by first-class mail to his address shown on the register kept by the Registrar.  Failure to mail a notice or communication to a Securityholder of any Series or any defect in it shall not affect its sufficiency with respect to other Securityholders of that or any other Series.
 
If a notice or communication is mailed or published in the manner provided above, within the time prescribed, it is duly given, whether or not the Securityholder receives it.
 
If the company mails a notice or communication to Securityholders, it will mail a copy to the Trustee and each Agent at the same time.
 
Whenever a notice is required to be given by the Company, such notice may be given by the Trustee or Registrar on the Company's behalf (and the Company will make any notice it is required to give to Holders available on its website).
 
SECTION 10.03.          Communication by Holders with Other Holders.
 
Securityholders of any Series may communicate pursuant to TIA Section 312(b) with other Securityholders of that Series or any other Series with respect to their rights under this Indenture or the Securities of that Series or all Series.  The Company, the Trustee, the Registrar and anyone else shall have the protection of TIA Section 312(c).
 
SECTION 10.04.          Certificate and Opinion as to Conditions Precedent.
 
Upon any request or application by the Company to the Trustee to take any action under this Indenture, the Company shall furnish to the Trustee:
 
(a)          an Officers' Certificate stating that, in the opinion of the signers, all conditions precedent, if any, provided for in this Indenture relating to the proposed action have been complied with; and
 
(b)          an Opinion of Counsel stating that, in the opinion of counsel, all such conditions precedent (including any covenants, compliance with which constitutes a condition precedent) have been complied with.
 
SECTION 10.05.          Statements Required in Certificate or Opinion.
 
Each certificate or opinion with respect to compliance with a condition or covenant provided for in this Indenture (other than a certificate provided pursuant to TIA Section 314(a)(4)) shall comply with the provisions of TIA Section 314(e) and shall include:
 
(a)          a statement that the person making such certificate or opinion has read such covenant or condition;
 
(b)          a brief statement as to the nature and scope of the examination or investigation  upon which the statements or opinions  contained in such certificate or opinion are based;
 
 

43


 
(c)          a statement that, in the opinion of such person, he has made such examination or investigation as is necessary to enable him to express an informed opinion as to whether or not such covenant or condition has been complied with; and
 
(d)          a statement as to whether or not, in the opinion of such person, such condition or covenant has been complied with.
 
provided, however, that with respect to matters of fact an Opinion of Counsel may rely on an Officers' Certificate or certificates of public officials.
 
SECTION 10.06.          Record Date for Vote or Consent of Holders.
 
The Company (or, in the event deposits have been made pursuant to Section 11.02, the Trustee) may set a record date for purposes of determining the identity of Holders entitled to vote or consent to any action by vote or consent authorized or permitted under this Indenture, which record date shall not be more than [  ] days prior to the date of the commencement of solicitation of such action.  Notwithstanding the provisions of Section 9.05, if a record date is fixed, those persons who were Holders of Securities at the close of business on such record date (or their duly designated proxies), and only those persons, shall be entitled to take such action by vote or consent or to revoke any vote or consent previously given, whether or not such persons continue to be Holders after such record date.
 
SECTION 10.07.          Rules by Trustee and Agents.
 
The Trustee may make reasonable rules for action by or a meeting of Securityholders of one or more Series.  Any Agent may make reasonable rules and set reasonable requirements for its functions.
 
SECTION 10.08.          Legal Holidays.
 
Unless otherwise provided by Board Resolution, Officers' Certificate or supplemental indenture for a particular Series, a "Legal Holiday" is any day that is not a Business Day.  If a payment date is a Legal Holiday at a place of payment, payment may be made at that place on the next succeeding day that is not a Legal Holiday, and no interest shall accrue for the intervening period.
 
SECTION 10.09.          No Recourse Against Others.
 
A director, officer, employee or stockholder, as such, of the Company shall not have any liability for any obligations of the Company under the Securities or the Indenture or for any claim based on, in respect of or by reason of such obligations or their creation.  Each Securityholder by accepting a Security waives and releases all such liability.  The waiver and release are part of the consideration for the issue of the Securities.
 
SECTION 10.10.          Counterparts.
 
 
 

44


 
This Indenture may be executed in any number of counterparts and by the parties hereto in separate counterparts, each of which when so executed shall be deemed to be an original and all of which taken together shall constitute one and the same agreement.
 
SECTION 10.11.          Governing Laws and Submission to Jurisdiction.
 
THIS INDENTURE AND THE SECURITIES SHALL BE GOVERNED BY THE LAWS OF THE STATE OF NEW YORK EXCLUDING ANY RULE OF LAW THAT WOULD CAUSE THE APPLICATION OF THE LAWS OF ANY JURISDICTION OTHER THAN THE STATE OF NEW YORK.
 
The Company agrees that any legal suit, action or proceeding arising out of or based upon this Indenture may be instituted in any federal or state court sitting in New York City, and, to the fullest extent permitted by law, waives any objection which it may now or hereafter have to the laying of venue of any such proceeding, and irrevocably submits to the non-exclusive jurisdiction of such court in any suit, action or proceeding.  The Company, as long as any Securities remain outstanding or the parties hereto have any obligation under this Indenture, shall have an authorized agent in the United States upon whom process may be served in any such legal action or proceeding. Service of process upon such agent and written notice of such service mailed or delivered to it shall to the extent permitted by law be deemed in every respect effective service of process upon it in any such legal action or proceeding and, if it fails to maintain such agent, any such process or summons may be served by mailing a copy thereof by registered mail, or a form of mail substantially equivalent thereto, addressed to it at its address as provided for notices hereunder. The Company hereby appoints Seward & Kissel LLP, One Battery Park Plaza, New York, NY,  10004, as its agent for such purposes, and covenants and agrees that service of process in any legal action or proceeding may be made upon it at such office of such agent.

SECTION 10.12.          No Adverse Interpretation of Other Agreements.
 
This Indenture may not be used to interpret another indenture, loan or debt agreement of the Company or a Subsidiary.  Any such indenture, loan or debt agreement may not be used to interpret this Indenture.
 
SECTION 10.13.          Successors.
 
All agreements of the Company in this Indenture and the Securities shall bind its successor.  All agreements of the Trustee in this Indenture shall bind its successor.
 
SECTION 10.14.          Severability.
 
In case any provision in this Indenture or in the Securities shall be invalid, illegal or unenforceable, the validity, legality and enforceability of the remaining provisions shall not in any way be affected or impaired thereby.
 
SECTION 10.15.          Table of Contents, Headings, Etc.

 
 

45


 
The Table of Contents, Cross Reference Table, and headings of the Articles and Sections of this Indenture have been inserted for convenience of reference only, are not to be considered a part hereof, and shall in no way modify or restrict any of the terms or provisions hereof.
 
SECTION 10.16.          Securities in a Foreign Currency or in ECU.
 
Unless otherwise specified in a Board Resolution, a supplemental indenture hereto or an Officers' Certificate delivered pursuant to Section 2.02 of this Indenture with respect to a particular Series of Securities, whenever for purposes of this Indenture any action may be taken by the Holders of a specified percentage in aggregate principal amount of Securities of all Series or all Series affected by a particular action at the time outstanding and, at such time, there are outstanding Securities of any Series which are denominated in a coin or currency other than Dollars (including ECUs), then the principal amount of Securities of such Series which shall be deemed to be outstanding for the purpose of taking such action shall be that amount of Dollars that could be obtained for such amount at the Market Exchange Rate at such time.  For purposes of this Section 10.16, "Market Exchange Rate" shall mean the noon Dollar buying rate in New York City for cable transfers of that currency as published by the Federal Reserve Bank of New York; provided, however, in the case of ECUs, Market Exchange Rate shall mean the rate of exchange determined by the Commission of the European Union (or any successor thereto) as published in the Official Journal of the European Union (such publication or any successor publication, the "Journal").  If such Market Exchange Rate is not available for any reason with respect to such currency, the Trustee shall use, without liability on its part, such quotation of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York or, in the case of ECUs, the rate of exchange as published in the Journal, as of the most recent available date, or quotations or, in the case of ECUs, rates of exchange from one or more major banks in The City of New York or in the country of issue of the curr